The next vital engagement was going to be at sea.In September 480 BCE at Salamis in the Saronic Gulf, the Greeks once more faced a larger enemy force. The name Iran derives from the word “Asyran,” and during the first half of the first millennium, the Iranian-speaking people moved gradually into the area of the Zagros Mountains, the largest groups known as the Medes and Persians. Start studying Greece 1.1: The Persian Wars. An important feature that played significant role in making the Greeks to win Persian wars was that of their Unity against Persia. the most ... By the time of the Persian Gulf War in 1991, laser guided bombs were in widespread use. This natural genius was shown in the years preceding the Second Persian, after the defeat of the Persians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. Athenian democracy ensured that talented individuals rose to positions of power and influence such as Miltiades and Themistocles. Such factors include unity, leadership, strategy, tactics and the pre-eminence of the Greek soldier. The Persian Wars were fought between the Greeks and Persians over two thousand years ago. The Persian Wars were a series of destructive and malevolent battles which occurred in the time frame of 490B.C and 480 – 479B.C. from modern day India to western Turkey and as far south as Egypt. Tags: Question 4 . Greece was invaded twice during the Persian wars. Miltiades was elected to serve as one of the 10 stratagoi (generals) to command the Athenian forces in 490 BC and was crucial to the victory at the Battle of Marathon. The Greek victory over the Persians in the Persian Wars cannot be attributed to only one factor, more it was a commixture of factors. Persian soldiers were career soldiers unlike most Greeks who were citizen soldiers, only performing their military duties when war was upon them. They possessed grave trepidations because of a lack of news from the front. The Greeks were victorious because they out-planned and out-thought the Persians, taking advantage of their own knowledge of the terrain and benefiting from Persians’ errors on the battlefield. And, as they were hoplites (heavy infantry), their armour was extremely heavy, and very, very hot. Thucydides describes Themistocles as a man who showed an ‘unmistakable natural genius’. The key to Athens' strength in the 5th Century BC was in this general and statesman and therefore, as Greek victory relied so heavily on Athens, Themistocles vitally contributed to the outcome of the Persian king’s invasion of 480-479 BC. The Persian Wars refers to the conflict between Greece and Persia in the 5th century BCE which involved two invasions by the latter in 490 and 480 BCE. His early life reflects the character and skills developed that were responsible for these contributions. contribution the key factor in bringing about a Greek victory in the Persian Wars, 480-479 BC?To a very large extent Themistocles did play the key role in bringing about a Greek victory against the Persians in 480-479BC. Let us, therefore, return to Thucydides' often overlooked observation and ask what were the Persian military errors in Greece. These include the superior leadership from commanders such as Themistocles and Leonidas, the effective Greek strategy and the cooperation of all the Greek city states to unite against a common threat. They changed meaning of it. Consequently, the help given by the Athenians to the Ionians, according to Pamela Bradley – “drew upon them the vengeance of Darius, who now set in motion his first expedition against Greece”. Struggling to control the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrantsto rule each of them. The Persian Wars began when Athens agreed to come to the aid of the Greek-speaking city-states on the coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). Savage was what Romans used Greek word "barbar" for. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Such factors include unity, leadership, strategy, tactics and the pre-eminence of the Greek soldier. Others, especially Miltiades supported an offensive strategy. Which of these was not a result of the greek victory in the persian wars? Who were the Persians? Nonetheless, the Persian Wars were important because the final result was the separation of Greece and the Near East. Persian Wars, 500 BC–449 BC, series of conflicts fought between Greek states and the Persian Empire. Athenian democracy ensured that talented individuals rose to positions of power and influence such as Miltiades and Themistocles. It was the invasion of Greece from 480 BC to 479 BC; King Xerxes I, of Persia, was determined to conquer Greece during the Greco-Persian Wars; he had an army of over 100,000 men. Subsequently, the Persians suffered many defeats at the hands of the Greeks, led by the Athenians. As well as this, Themistocles’ strategy in key battle such as Thermopylae, Artemisium and Salamis were vital to to war effort. Athens, and other Greek cities, sent aid, but were quickly forced to back down after defeat in 494 BCE. Democracy would have ceased to exist. The Battle of Salamis was a turning point in the war as the Persian fleet was largely destroyed. Themistocles realized the consistent threat of the Persians and that they would... ...antiquity and covered over 6 million square kms from the Caspian Sea in the north to the Indian ocean in the south from Egypt in the west to the Indus River in the east. Phalanx. What was an advantage that Greece had over the Persians in the Battle of Marathon? So, for the exception of the Spartan military, the Persian soldiers were better trained. Each contributing factor was to play a distinctive and pivotal role When he learns of the Persian defeat, Darius condemns the hubris behind his son’s decision to invade Greece and particularly his decision to build a bridge over the Hellespont to expedite the Persian army’s advance, which, he argues, merely angered the gods and led to the Persian defeat. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. If it had not been for him then Athens would have not used some newly found silver to build 200 new ships for their navy. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Of his many preparations, he... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes. According to the Modern Historians Bengtson and Paul K. Davis, a Persian force of 20,000 led by the tyrant Hippias, landed at the Bay of Marathon, about 25.5 miles from Athens. Why was Greek victory in Persian Wars so important to not only Greeks, but Americans as well . The wars with Greece and Persia were a result due to rebellion, but who won the war? 900 seconds . (Frye)The start of the Graeco-Persian hostilities can be traced back to 499 BCE at the beginning of the Ionian revolt when Ionian Greeks revolted against their Persian leaders in a bloody civil war that lasted over seven years. Victory of Greece in the Greco-Persian Wars The Ancient Greek city-states of the 5th century BCE took on one of the most powerful and dangerous empires of the ancient world in a struggle to maintain independence from the Persians. Get Started. - loss in marathon set the tone for the war - brings together Sparta and Athens in a superior trained army - inter period saw the hellenic league - tactics and strategies used in various battle Persian ruler, Xerxes, fuelled by his father Darius' past defeats, This idea is shared by modern historian Buckley: "Themistocles firmly believed that Athen's future lay on the sea, and willingly accepted the political... ...The Persian Unlike his more successful father Darius, Xerxes’ actions did not strengthen the Persian Empire, but led, Why the Greeks Won the Greco-Persian War Cause of 1st Persian War Greek's consider this battle to be one of the most important events since they were able to defeat the large Persian army will a small force. 382-95, 394). The leadership showed by men such as Themistocles and Leonidas had a significant impact in the victory for the Greeks. The main reason that the Greeks were able to win the Second Greco-Persian War was the fact that their victory on the sea dealt a crippling blow to the land army. The Greeks were able to win the Greco-Persian War because of their naval victories over the Persians, a few key strategic victories on land, as well as the cause for which they were fighting. answer choices . Persia wanted Greek culture. Some wars and battles have turned the course of human history in a fundamentally new way. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. The Greek victory over the Persians in the Persian Wars cannot be attributed to only one factor, more it was a commixture of factors. Miltiades was elected to serve as one of the 10 stratagoi (generals) to command the Athenian forces in 490 BC and was crucial to the victory at the Battle of Marathon. The reasons for the Greek victory against the Persians in 490 to 480/479 BC was a mixture of exceptional leadership, skilful tactics and strategy, superior weapons and soldiers, and Greek unity. Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.E.) Formation of soldiers carrying shields close together for defense; any very close group of people. They controlled land that stretched from Egypt all the way to India. ...the object” – Abraham Lincoln. This had severe ramifications for the Persian forces and, Alfred Wegener: Theory of Continental Drift, The Government and Fiscal Policy Sample Questions. The The Battle of Marathon was a watershed in the Greco-Persian wars, showing the Greeks that the Persians could be beaten; the eventual Greek triumph in these wars can be seen to have begun at Marathon. When Athens encouraged these cities to rebel against Persian rule, emperor Darius set out a campaign not only to increase his empire but also to punish the rebelling cities. GRECO-PERSIAN WARS. reassess the reasons why the Persians lost their wars in Greece; and to set aside the ancient idea of the victory of Athenian democracy, no matter how slight in power, over the indomitable forces of the enslaving oriental despotism of Achaemenid Persia. It was one of those times when a few Greek city/states joined together and defeated the invasion force of the massive Persian Empire. The Battle. It was not, however, a victory for democracy for several reasons. The Spartans mostly retreated behind their borders when the direct danger was over, in 478 BC. more people. Most of the Greek vessels were equipped with rams and were faster and more agile in the confined waterway. Wars Themistocles strategy was a complete success with the Persians losing 200 ships whilst the Greeks lost only 40. Another reason is that the impressive Greek collection of literary, scientific and other texts has survived, whereas there is no such collection from Persia. There was the first Persian war in 490 BC, but the Persians were routed. Five pivotal roles he undertook were of varying degrees responsible for Greece’s success against Xerxes. As a result of the allied Greek success, a large contingent of the Persian fleet was destroyed and all Persian garrisons were expelled from Europe, marking an end of Persia’s advance westward into the continent. The Persians lost their wars in Greece, in part, because the triumphant Greeks wrote the histories and other texts that survive; and they stressed their victories as inevitable and foreordained. This is the last battle. See answer claudiaocampo3662 is waiting for your help. They controlled land that stretched from Egypt all the way to India. This first expedition was to be known as the Battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. The Greeks were victorious in the Second Persian War because of a number of factors. The time of the Persian Wars offers us our best view of Greek religion in action and of the interplay of Greek religion and history. Themistocles possessed an incredible foresight and began to prepare against the inevitable Persian invasion early on, his political leadership to a domestic level in Athens contributed to the state’s naval strength, and similarly, his political leadership in the conception of a united Greek defence was a significant achievement. 1. The Greek victory over the Persians in the Persian Wars cannot be attributed to only one factor, more it was a commixture of factors. It is important to understand the reasons for the Persians insistent invasion of the Greeks and the vigilant campaign to take over Athens. The origin of the Persian Empire can be attributed to the leadership of Cyrus the Great. All these reasons played a crucial role in the Greek victory over the Persians in the Second Persian War. Following their defeats at the hands of the Greeks, and plagued by internal rebellions that hindered their ability to fight foreign enemies, the Persians adopted a policy of divide-and-rule. The Persian wars began. What factors led to Greek victory in the Persian Wars? Vastly outnumbered, the Greeks eventually triumphed by defeating their enemies at Plataea, but not before fighting one of history’s greatest military stands at Thermopylae. Assess the reasons for the Greek victory over the Persians in 490 to 480/479 BC. Start studying Greece Test #2 Persian War Reasons for Victory. yes indeed Votes: 12 46.2% negatory Votes: 14 53.8% Total voters 26; Status Closed Prev. They introduce not only the main subject but also the Lydian Aoyog, both of which come into view when we read of Croesus in I, 5: cy) 8s TrepVt 1V TOVToV OVK ppXo/xat epEowv cs OVTQw ? The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in 547 BC. Thucydides describes Themistocles as a man who showed an ‘unmistakable natural genius’. At the beginning of the 5th century BC, the Persian Empire extended Posted in Best Essay Post navigation . Did the Greek victories against the Persians save western civilization? The Persian War showed the superiority of the hoplite phalanx over the Persian type of fighting. Few periods are better documented than this episode of the Greek past, certainly for research on such questions. Reasons for Greek Victory and Persian Defeat. Persia wanted revenge. The Greek victory over the Persians in the Persian Wars cannot be attributed to only one factor, more it was a commixture of factors. It was he who realized that the Persian threat was imminent and catastrophic, and it was his radical advancement of Athenian sea power which allowed the Greeks to achieve victory over the Persians. Herodotus, the world’s first historian, who describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under the power of its kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius the Great, in his book “The Histories” says, “Darius the Great had begged his god to grant him the punishment of the Athenians.” Due to interfere of Greeks in Ionian war with Persian Empire, the Persian army invaded mainland Greece to gain revenge for the Athenian’s aid to the Ionians. A brilliant and powerful Persian king, he enlarged nearby islands and united them into one empire. Brainly User Brainly User Cyrus the GreatThis was the leader of the Persian empire in 548 BCE.BabyloniaThe Persians conquered this Mesopotamian civilization:SatrapiesDarius divided the Persian empire into 23 of these territories … On his invasion of Greece in the spring of 480BCE, he reportedly commanded a horde of over two million men. In the Greco-Persian wars from 499 BC-449 BC this colossal empire lost due to superior Greek military capabilities residing in the exceptional Greek generals and professional troop contingents. answer choices . It depicted the emotional response of the Persian Elders, the Queen Mother Atossa, a herald, King Xerxes, and the ghost of Darius upon hearing the news of the Persian defeat at the Battle of Salamis against the Greeks. Ancient History. But it still leaves many people asking how a force so drastically outnumbered was able to hold a force nearly twenty times their number. The Delian Leagues led by Athens was formed afterwards to protect Greece from further Persian Invasion. The defeat at Thermopylae, though glorious, allowed the Persians to make in-roads into Greece. Subsequently, the Persians suffered many defeats at the hands of the Greeks, led by the Athenians. The most significant, Xerxes’ defeat of the invasion of Greece. After serving at the battle of Marathon, in 490BC during the first invasion, Themistocles was one of the few who realized the threat of future invasions from the eastern power of Persia. note Moreover, in their historical writings, the Greek authors make it clear that the Persians are a mere bunch of decadent, effeminate barbarians , natural slaves that could be ignored in the history of mankind. The Persian Empire was the largest and most powerful empire in the world at the time of the Persian Wars. It was one of those times when a few Greek city/states joined together and defeated the invasion force of the massive Persian Empire. The Persians managed to finally repel the second Persian invasion and thus set … In 479 B.C. See answer claudiaocampo3662 is waiting for your help. Each contributing factor was to play a distinctive and pivotal role in the various battles to come, which ultimately would lead to the subsequent demise of the Persians. Themistocles strategy was to lure the Persians into the narrowest part of the straits where the Greeks’ intimate knowledge of the waterway and the Persian predisposition for maintaining formations would offset the numerical disparity between them. 2. SURVEY . Highlights of Persian Wars Battle of Marathon (490 B.C) Persians crossed the Aegean Sea and attacked the Athenians on a plain called Marathon outside of Athens Greeks outnumbered, but WON! Thucydides says that Themistocles had a great gift for analysing complex situations and taking action, and that is just what he did. According to Herodotus Miltiades was the architect of several Greek strategies that achieved victory at Marathon. Make a judgement based on outcome, results and values. After his death, Xerxes, his son, planned the second war and gathered an enormous navy and army. Athens, and other Greek cities, sent aid, but were quickly forced to back down after defeat in 494 BCE. Greeks who fought during the Persian wars were mostly farmers, who, at the last minute had to make their own armour or wear used armour. Such factors include unity, leadership, strategy, tactics and the pre-eminence of the Greek soldier. As the War of Persia was fought in fifth century, there was strong hold of Persia all over the world having number of states in their control, it was never thought that the unity of Greeks would bring downfall of the Persian Empire by merely gathering into a group. His failure is largely attributed to the The leadership showed by men such as Themistocles and Leonidas had a significant impact in the victory for the Greeks. The Persian forces were primarily light and heavy infantry consisting of swordsmen, spear men and archers with a measure of lightly armed and armored calvary. The Persian army relied heavily on calvary and archers The Persian Empire was the largest and most powerful empire in the world at the time of the Persian Wars. I felt pretty darn lucky to have studied the Delian League. foresight and strategies of a respectable, wealthy Athenian, The battle of Thermopylae in year 480 BCE was a major part in the Greek victory of the Graeco-persian wars and for the battle of Greece as an independent nation leading to the Greek golden age and Hellenism forever changing the western world and its culture. This fear stemmed from the great, always, that the good of the people was the object” – Abraham Lincoln. According to Herodotus, Some of the northern Greek city states had already surrendered to Xerxes. The Persian Wars began in 499 BCE, when Greeks in the Persian-controlled territory rose in the Ionian Revolt. I will explore this with focus on the key battles and the important factors, most notably the timing, The Role of Themistocles in the Greek Defeat of the Persians in 480 - 479 BC. History >> Ancient Greece The Persian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Persians and the Greeks from 492 BC to 449 BC. 19). Herodotus in his narrative has... ...------------------------------------------------- This series of wars consisted of some famous battles; Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis and Plataea which resulted in a Greek victory. This foresight was the first step Greece made to defend herself against the ‘barbarians’ and hence holds a degree of responsibility for Greek victory in the Persian wars. The Gulf War. Let move on to equipment. Described by ancient writer Thucydides as ‘a man who showed an unmistakable natural genius… and deserves our admiration’, Themistocles was the most influential leader of the Athenian war effort against the Persians. 5, Section 3 The Spartan victors stripped Athenians of their naval fleet and empire. strong central leadership. 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