... NCERT Textbook - The Origin and Evolution of the Earth; Test: The Origin And … Latitudes are measured in degrees. It is slightly flattened at the poles. Later in 1900, Chamberlain and Moulton considered that a wandering star approached the sun. The whole mass became a dumb-bell-shaped body and eventually it broke. Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus have rings around them. The Big Bang Theory considers the following stages in the development of the universe. A needle is fixed through me globe in a tilted manner, which is called its axis. Based on all the evidences from Seismic data and their analysis, the earth’s interior has been divided into three layers. NCERT Extracts - The Origin and Evolution of the Earth, Early Theories of the Origin of the Earth, Modem Theories of the Origin of the Universe, Copyright © 2007-2020 | These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. Privacy Policy The earth's oceans were formed within 500 million years from the formation of the earth. Continental Drift; Convection current and seafloor Spreading; … Some of the Indian satellites in space are INSAT, IRS, EDUSAT, etc. Also, the origin of many phenomena like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami etc are linked with the structure of earth's interior. Earth’s Interior. Alternatively, the first four are called Terrestrial, meaning earth-like as they are made up of rock and metals, and have relatively high densities. : A galaxy starts to form by accumulation of hydrogen gas in the form of a very large cloud called nebula. It is referred as the modern theory when it comes to the origin of earth. Lithosphere. There are eight planets in our solar system. Methane, carbondioxide and ammonia released from molten mass covered the surface. This equals to 9.4611012 km. The ozone layer was formed. While watching the night sky, you may notice various patterns formed by different groups of stars. 90 degrees north latitude marks the North Pole and 90 degrees south latitude marks the South Pole. are emitted outward in the course of an eruption. Origin of earth is matter of great speculation and discussion. NCERT Notes Origin And Evolution Earth Part2 NCERT Notes: The Origin And The Evolution Of The Earth [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT notes on important topics for the IAS aspirants. The lithosphere is the rigid outer part of the earth with thickness varying between 10 … As the earth cooled, the water vapour released started getting condensed. Within 3,00,000 years from the Big Bang, temperature dropped to 4,500 K (Kelvin) and gave rise to atomic matter. The family of the sun is, therefore, called the solar system. This tells us that the oceans are as old as 4,000 million years. These are belts of small debris These nngs may be seen from the earth with the help of powerful telescopes. These two types have different chemical compositions and physical properties and were formed by different geological processes. The early atmosphere largely contained water vapour, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia and very little of free oxygen. Questions Bank The North star indicates the north direction. 3 sec, OTP has been sent to your mobile number and is valid for one hour. In Size, it is the fifth largest planet. Out of the eight planets, mercury, venus, earth and mars are called as the inner planets as they lie between the sun and the belt of asteroids the other four planets are called the outer planets. Till recently (August, 2006), Pluto was also considered a planet. There are three stages in the evolution of the present atmosphere. Amazing Facts A galaxy contains a large number of stars. From the outer space, the earth appears blue because its two-thirds surface is coven by water. Unlike parallels of latitude, all meridians are of equal length. For example, in Russia, there are as many as eleven standard times. This is far from the present day picture of the earth. The UV rays from the sun brokeup water into Hydrogen and Oxygen and the lighter H2 escaped. This later led to the development of the outer surface in the form of a crust. The Origin and Evolution of the Earth class 11 Notes Geography in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. It is brittle in nature. We can locate the position of the Po Star with the help of the Saptarishi. Within first three minutes from the Big Bang event, the first atom began to form. It is, therefore, called a blue planet. Videos These formed the bases for development of galaxies. 2.1 Theories about the formation of the crust The geological time scale (GTS), as defined by international convention, depicts the large spans of time from the beginning of the … ORIGIN OF THE EARTH'S CRUST AND ITS EVOLUTION 517 of the Precambrian rocks in Japan as a basement complex, prior to the deposition of the Paleozoic formations. Due to gradual increase in density the temperature inside has increased. Earth formed around 4.54 billion years ago by accretion from the solar nebula. A light-year is a measure of distance and not of time. A light year is a measure of distance and not of time. So it will be 7:30 p.m. in India when it is 2:00 p.m. noon in London. | In 1838, Sir George Darwin suggested that initially, the earth and the moon formed a single rapidly rotating body. The mantle is the mostly-solid bulk of Earth's interior. A large number of hypotheses were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Uranus, Saturn and Neptune. Geography is an English word It has its origin m Greek, which relates to the description of the earth. There are four important parallels of latitudes : Tropic of Cancer \[(23{{{}^{1}/{}_{2}}^{o}}N)\]in the Northern Hemisphere. Franchise In ancient times, people used to determine directions during the night with the help stars. Eventually, growing nebula develops localised clumps of gas. Our solar system consists of the sun (the star), 8 planets, 63 moons, millions of smaller bodies like asteroids and comets and huge quantity of dust-grains and gases. Sometime around 3,800 million years ago, life began to evolve. | India located east of Greenwich at 82°30'E in 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of GMT. At a later date, the arguments considered of a companion to the sun to have been coexisting. The moon moves around the earth in about 27 days. Therefore, if rays are always slanting and provide less heat. It considered the universe to be roughly the same at any point of time. The crust of the Earth has two distinct types: continental crust and oceanic crust. The firm outer part of the earth, comprising of the crust and upper mantle. ... mantle layer below. The gravitational force within the lumps leads to the formation of a core to the gas cloud and a huge rotating disc of gas and dust develops around the gas core. It is about 3,84,400 km away from us. NCERT Notes The Origin Evolution And Theories Of The Earth NCERT Notes: Earth - Origin & Evolution [Geography Notes For UPSC] NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. The nebula from which our Solar system is supposed to have been formed, started its collapse and core formation some time 5-5.6 billion years ago and the planets were formed about 4.6 billion years ago. It is made of two Greek words, 'ge’ meaning' 'earth- and 'graphia' meaning 'writing'. Media These are called constellations. Edwin Hubble, in 1920, provided evidence that the universe is expanding. The sun, eight planets, satellites and some other celestial bodies known as asteroids and meteoroids form the solar system. The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day. It lies between Earth's dense, super-heated core and its thin outer layer, the crust. This non-stop movement causes stress on Earth’s crust. | This document is highly rated by Teaching students and has been viewed 16920 times. It is now generally accepted that the event of big bang took 13.7 billion years before the present. The age of Earth is approximately one-third of the age of the universe. It is known as the Indian Standard Time (1ST). The solar winds were not all that intense to cause similar removal of gases from the Jovian planets. After an asteroid belt comes the outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. When the stresses get too large, it leads to cracks called … The equator represents the zero degree latitude. These lines of references are called the meridians of longitude, and the distance between them are measured in 'degrees of longitude.' The most popular argument regarding the origin of the universe is the Big Bang Theory. However, with greater evidence becoming available about the expanding universe, scientific community at present favours argument of expanding universe. In the second stage, the hot interior of the earth contributed to the evolution of the atmosphere. Similarly all paralles south of the equator are called 'south latitudes.'. Origin and evolution of Universe, Solar system Geological History of the Earth Geological Time scale Latitude and Longitude including important Parallels and Meridians Motions of the Earth and their effects Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its effects Local and Standard Time and the International Date Line, Calendar Tectonic plates (Lithospheric plates) are constantly shifting as they drift around on the viscous, or slowly flowing, mantle layer below. Notification | The crust is the outermost layer of the earth. There are millions of such galaxies that make the Universe. In the next stage, the gas cloud starts getting condensed and the matter around the core develops into small-rounded objects. The moon is the only natural satellite of the earth. The Prime Meridian and 180° meridian divide the earth into two equal halves, the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere. 2. In the beginning, all matter forming the universe existed in one place m the form of a “tiny ball” (singular atom) with an unimaginably small volume, infinite temperature and infinite density. The early terrestrial crust appeared approximately 4.5 billion years ago, after the late stages of planetary accretion. During the cooling of the earth, gases and water vapour were released from the interior solid earth. Galaxies spread over vast distances that are measured in thousands of light-years. The rainwater falling onto the surface got collected in the depressions to give rise to oceans. The formation of stars is believed to have taken place some 5-6 billion years ago. Volcanic activity is an … Some countries have a great longitudinal extent and so they have adopted more than one standard time. | The northern half of the earth is known as the Northern Hemisphere and the southern half is known as the Southern Hemisphere. It is also called the Pole Star. The earth’s radius is 6,370 km. 'Solar' means -related to the sun'. He moon is the only natural satellite of the earth. The expansion continues even to the present day. 1.2: Formation of planets The crust of the earth was formed from cooling and hardening of the molten matter and hot gases. | The universe is about 15 to ... With cooling of the earth the crust hardened and formed the … Each zone thus covers 15° of longitude. It is the outermost solid part of the earth. The best app for CBSE students now provides The Origin and Evolution of the Earth class 11 Notes Geography latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE exams and school-based annual examinations. Ncert Solutions Earth’s Mantle. Upsc geography optional oceanic crust vs continental what are endogenic and exogenic forces upsc geography endogeic movement optionals ias mains geography origin Origin And Evolution Of Life On Earth Pmf IasInterior Of The Earth Crust Mantle And Core CleariasLandforms And Evolution River Course OnNcert Notes Earth Origin And Evolution Geography For UpscEarth S Layers Crust… There was no atmosphere on early earth. They are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. It is also called expanding universe hypothesis. W ith cooling of the earth the crust hardened and formed the land. Such vents or openings occur in those parts of the earth’s crust where the rock strata are relatively weak. Areas lying between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic Circle and Hemisphere, are very cold. A Human-made Satellite is an artificial body. Sample Papers The atmospheric matter has the least density. | Arctic Circle of \[66{{{}^{1}/{}_{2}}^{o}}\] north of the equator. There was particularly rapid expansion within fractions of a second after the bang. Evolution of the Earth. | The hypothesis considered that the planets were formed out of a cloud of material associated with a youthful sun, which was slowly rotating. It is through me process of differentiation that the earth forming material got separate into different layers. Free Videos, Contact Us Its diametre is only one-quarter that of the earth. GEOGRAPHY GEOMORPHOLOGY NOTES. Lithosphere: The firm outer part of the earth, comprising of the crust and upper mantle. 'Sol’ in Roman mythology is the 'Sungod'. Yet, a part of the information is obtained through direct observations and analysis of materials. Most of them are much larger than the terrestrial planets and have thick atmosphere, mostly of helium and hydrogen. From the crust to the core, the density of the material increases. Its depth varies from 16 km – 40 km. These are optional notes but very relevant for GS-1 Geography as well. Starting from the surface to the central parts, we have layers like the crust, mantle, outer core and inner core. The solar wind was most intense nearer the sun; so, it blew off lots of gas and dust from the terrestrial planets. In this course, she teaches about various … NCERT notes on important topics for the IAS aspirants. Two points on the globe through which the needle passes are two poles - North Pole and South Pole. In this article (geography section), we discuss the interior of the earth. This later led to the development of the outer surface in the form of a crust. This started the evolution of the present atmosphere. Your email address will not be published. Hydrogen and helium were the gases which intially formed the earth's atmosphere. Dec 25, 2020 - Revision Notes - The Origin and Evolution of the Earth, Class 11, Geography | EduRev Notes is made by best teachers of Teaching. The planet earth initially was a barren, rocky and hot object with a thin atmosphere of hydrogen and helium. As a result, only one side of the moon is visible to us on the earth Q Neil Armstrong was the first man to step on the surface of the moon on 21 July, 1969. Life was confined to the oceans for a long time. It takes exactly the same time complete one spin. Lithosphere, Atmosphere, and Hydrosphere of the Earth. Lalit Sardana Sir | Refund Policy, You need to login to perform this action.You will be redirected in Modem scientists refer to the origin of life as a kind of chemical reaction, which first generated complex organic molecules and assembled them. Venus is considered as 'Earth's-twin' because its size and shape are very much similar to that of the earth. Upsc civil services mains 2017 general origin and evolution of life on earth chandrayaan 2 mission legacy ias academy jee main advanced cbse neet iit optionals ias mains geography origin Origin And Evolution Of Life On Earth Pmf IasNcert Notes Earth Origin And Evolution Geography For UpscOrigin And Evolution Of Life On Earth Pmf IasOrigin… Read More » At the Big Bang the “tiny ball” exploded violently. Our Solar system consists of eight planets. This led to a huge expansion. As a result, a cigar-shaped extension of material was separated from the solar surface. It is about 2,900 kilometers thick and makes up 84% of Earth’s total volume. They are called orbits. These small-rounded objects by the process of cohesion develop into what is called planetesimals. ... Impact of Pleistocene Ice age on the crust of the Earth. This article talks about the Geography as an assimilating discipline as a science of spatial characteristics and Divisions of geography and significance of physical geography. This meridian is called the Prime Meridian. Light travels at a speed of 3,00,000 km/second. These are, therefore, called Temperate Zones. It is not possible to know about the earth’s … | . | Each degree is further divided into minutes, and minutes into seconds. From the outermost end of the atmosphere to the centre of the earth, the material that exists is not uniform. This theory explains what exactly happened at the very beginning of time to our universe. | The mid-day sun is exactly overhead at least once a year on all latitudes in between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Larger bodies start forming by collision, and gravitational attraction causes the material to stick together. Title Origin of the Earth's Crust and its Evolution Author(s) Minato, M.; Hunahashi, M. Citation Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. The sun is in the centre of the solar system. The candidates will find here important questions related to the origin and evolution of the earth which indeed will help in IAS Prelims Exam and State PCS Exams. The earth has been divided into twenty-four time zones of one hour each. However, scientists in later period took up the problems of origin of universe rather than that of just the earth or the planets. The gas cloud starts getting condensed and the Western Hemisphere is called planetesimals and provide heat! To determine directions during the formation of the crust of the universe is considered 'Earth's-twin... North Pole in the evolution of the earth called nebula dropped to 4,500 K ( ). Sir James Jeans and later Sir Harold Jeffrey supported this argument reaching centre... 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