Franklin Prestage, an agent of the Eastern Bengal Railway, approached the government with a proposal to lay a steam tramway from Siliguri to Darjeeling. Development.It has strived hard against odds and has achieved goals at par or even better than the rest of the country. The history of Darjeeling has intimate relationship, nang ra masukojasto, to the history of Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, and the East India Company and thereby to Britain. The increasing importance of Darjeeling under free institutions was a constant source of jealousy and annoyance to the Diwan. Whilst the Darjeeling area was originally occupied by the Lepcha, it was not particularly developed as an area until the introduction of tea plants (from China) by the British in the early 19th century. The plants are plucked by hand every five to ten days, most typically of their top two leaves and a bud, however, based on growing conditions and desired product just the bud or the bud and top leaf may sometimes be plucked. N.B. As Darjeeling tea gained a reputation for its distinctiveness and quality, it was marketed more to Western Europe with many estates acquiring organic, biodynamic and Fairtrade certifications and the Tea Board of India pursuing authentication and international promotion of Darjeeling teas. When in 1849 the Pagla Dewan arrested Campbell and Hooker, the British sent a fugitive expedition against Sikkim in 1850. [10] The climate creates four distinct periods of cultivation, each of which has unique characteristics. And control of the remainder was wrested from them by the Gurkhas who invaded Sikkim in 1780, following the consolidation of the latter's rule in Nepal. The history of Darjeeling dates to the era when, the present area of Darjeeling was a buffer state between Nepal and Bhutan. 1835 the area of Darjeeling - that had been part of Sikkim until then - was annexed by British India. Apart from managing the various key departments, it plays a pivotal role and acts as an intermediate between the council and the Government. The Chinese variety (sinensis) was planted in Saharanpur B… Between Siliguri and Darjeeling, Tonga services ran on a cart road – the present-day Hill Cart Road. It has been working on various projects viz. Apart from these estates, a relatively small amount of tea is produced in farm cooperatives but they lack processing and quality control infrastructure. This treaty was of great advantage to Darjeeling as it ended the annoyances caused to its inhabitants and secured full freedom for commerce. At the beginning Sikkim was not favourably disposed to the ideas of gifting Darjeeling – but finally circumstances made it necessary as Sikkim needed to be in the good books of the British. [21] Studies of this arrangement have suggested that this has negatively effected the livelihoods of labourers, as owners have more than correspondingly reduced their contributions to the required services. Their high tannin content allows them to be paired well with carbohydrate-rich foods, such as baked goods and pasta. It has been marketed as the "Champagne of teas"[9] and been subject to undisclosed blending with other teas or purposeful mis-labelling. However after an agreement between the Government and the chief of The Gorkha National Liberation Front, Mr. Subsash Ghisingh, the agitation was suspended and paved the way for the formation of an autonomous council for the social, economic, educational and cultural advancement of the hill people. [11], Darjeeling tea is grown in the Darjeeling and Kalimpong districts, an area bound by Nepal to the west, Bhutan to the east and Sikkim to the north. The Chinese variety (sinensis) was planted in Saharanpur Botanical Gardens and propagated in other Himalayan gardens where Campbell had acquired seeds from Kumaun via Nathaniel Wallich. The persistent rain also results in less complete withering and oxidization during the processing stage. Delimitation of GTA Sabha Constituencies. Little is known of Sikkim’s history prior to the 17th century. It was entirely surrounded by the Raja’s dominions – entry and exit being restricted to a narrow path, which included the sites of Darjeeling and Kurseong towns and touched the plains near Pankhabari. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Due to his (Campbell’s) efforts, by 1852 – an excellent Sanatorium had been built, a Hill Corps had been established to maintain order and communication. From its commanding height, the whole of Sikkim and the neighbourhood could be observed and protected. The Raja of Sikkim was a mere cipher in the hands of the powerful Pagla Dewan (PM). They are harvested in October-November and provides a herbaceous and soft muscatel flavour but with a fuller body and darker colour than previous flushes, and is compared favorably with Nepali teas. There was also rumors of a planned attack on Darjeeling. [15] Some tea estates will produce a batch of Darjeeling oolong tea by limiting the amount of oxidation. The advantage that the Britishers would have, as it would serve as a strategically important position in commanding entrance to Nepal and Bhutan. At the time, the British were seeking an alternative supply of tea apart China and attempted growing the plant in several candidate areas in India. The Raja appeared before the Governor General for compensation. The forty-day riot led to the formation of Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council, a body that was given semi-autonomous powers to govern the Darjeeling district. In 1841 the Govt. Accordingly, GTA Sabha was constituted on 02.08.2012 with forty-five elected members and five members nominated by the Governor. Setting up of different Boards/ Committees for GTA areas. The objective is to establish an autonomous self-governing body to administer the region so that the socio-economic, infrastructural, educational, cultural and linguistic development is expedited and the ethnic identity of Gorkhas established, thereby achieving all-round development of the people of the region. Some estates create green or white teas from these as they demand less withering and no oxidation, however, when completed as black tea this flush is often sold below the cost of production for use in blending and domestic consumption. [10] Relative to other teas, Darjeeling tea is most similar to Nepali tea. ... (Darjeeling) to the British. Originally, Darjeeling was a part of the Kingdom of Sikkim. The Tea Board of India defines "Darjeeling Tea" as havng "been cultivated, grown, produced, manufactured and processed in tea gardens in the hilly areas of Sadar Subdivision, only hilly areas of Kalimpong District..., and Kurseong subdivision...of the District of Darjeeling in the State of West Bengal, India. A hotel was started at Kurseong and one at Darjeeling. [3] Darjeeling's population had grown from less than a 100 in the 1830s to 95,000 people with 100 tea gardens in 1885, predominately Indian Gorkha and Lepcha migrants from Nepal and Sikkim, as the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the use of steamships and the Suez Canal reduced shipping times. The attacks by the leafhopper and moth release defensive chemicals from the plant and naturally begins oxidation process within the leaves. General Lloyd was accordingly deputed to start negotiations with the Raja of Sikkim for the transfer of Darjeeling in return for an equivalent in money or land. They jointly negotiate together with the various unions and the government so that workers across numerous tea estates receive the same compensation. Darjeeling tea is a tea made from Camellia sinensis that is grown and processed in the Darjeeling or Kalimpong Districts in West Bengal, India. The sorting of the dried product according to tea leaf grading is completed and shipped to Kolkata for auctioning, though many estates sell privately under contracts. [20] Some of the notable tea estates include: The Government of West Bengal owns the land on which the estates are located and administer 30 to 90 year leases under the West Bengal Estates Acquisition Act to companies operating the estates. They followed a torturous winding path – like the roads here – of skewed global trade and politics of the colonial era. Previously Darjeeling formed a part of dominions of the Raja of Sikkim, who had been engaged in an unsuccessful warfare against the Gorkhas.From 1780 the Gorkhas constantly made inroads into Sikkim and by the beginning of 19th Century, they had overrun Sikkim as far eastward as the Teesta and had conquered and annexed the Terai. These annexations by the Gurkhas, however, brought them into conflict with the British. Success of assamica at the nearby Dooars-Terai tea gardens led to infrastructure investments that would be extend up the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, allowing more machinery and supplies to reach the tea gardens. In 1863, Ashley Eden was deputed to negotiate with Bhutan. Being on steep slopes, the soil is well-drained and deep enough for long root systems, necessary for anchoring soil on slopes. However neither the history of Sikkim, nor the history of Nepal furnish any account of its early history. Nepal and Bhutan, alarmed at British presence in the Himalaya accused Sikkim of selling out to the foreigners. A road from Darjeeling to Teesta was constructed. Serve as a British outpost in the Himalayas. In 2004, Darjeeling tea became India's first product to receive legal geographical indication protection under the World Trade Organization's TRIPS Agreement[8] and in 2011 it was given Protected Geographical Indication status in the European Union. The autumn flush produces teas similar, but more muted, to the second flush. The British were the ones who began this hugely profitable industry in the 1800s. They spent the winter of 1836 and a part of 1837 here and on the basis of their report it was decided to adopt Darjeeling as a sanatorium. [14], Darjeeling teas are best known for the muscatel flavour, described as a "musky spiciness," [17] "a unique muscat-like fruitiness in aroma and flavour,"[18] that develops in the second flush and is present to a lesser degree in the subsequent autumnal flush. Being on the sides of the hills, at high elevations where cool dry air interacts with warm moist air, there can be persistent fog or cloud cover during the growing months. Time and again the little kingdom had to defend itself against attacks from Nepal. [3] While both varieties grew, the sinensis variety was flourishing, as it was found assamica preferred warmer and wetter growing conditions while sinensis had been selectively cultivated for higher elevations. From a Report dated 18th June 1829, in which he claims to have been the only European, who visited the place. [2] A year after planting the first three Company experimental tea gardens in 1852, at Tukvar, Steinthal and Alubari, they reported having 2,000 tea plants and Robert Fortune was sent to provide an expert opinion on the "suitableness of the climate and soil of the Hills for the cultivation and manufacture of Tea". are still handled by the district administration. So the major problem faced by the administration was total native settlers. At the time, the British were seeking a source of tea outside of China and had both recently discovered a second variety of the plant growing in the wilderness of Assam and smuggled seeds and plantings out of China. [14], The plant rapidly grows during the monsoon flush from July to September with larger and less flavourful leaves. A land-mark year in the History of Darjeeling was 1835, but it would be appropriate to trace its History before that. He devoted himself to the task of developing the station, attracting immigrants to cultivate the mountain slopes and stimulating trade and commerce. This amount was raised to Rs.6,000/- in 1846. Critical issues viz. The place was mostly inhabited by the Lepchas and the Kirati people. In 1706 the king lost Kalimpong to the Bhutanese. The West Bengal government is also involved in providing regulatory supervision of numerous aspects of estate operations, including land use and labour agreements. In 1839 Dr. Campbell, the Br. On March 28th 1861, Ashley Eden signed a treaty with the new Raja. After the rainy season, the final leaves grown before the plant's winter dormancy are referred to as the autumnal flush. The Anglo-Nepal war broke out in 1814. Audit of Accounts of erstwhile DGHC and present GTA. We learn that Lloyd visited ‘the old Gorkha Station called Darjeeling’, for six days in Feb. 1829 and ‘was immediately struck with it being well adapted for the purpose of a sanatorium’ (he was apprehensive of the winters suggested Ging). The Camellia sinensis seeds originally planted came from China but new plantings come predominately from saplings taken from a few cultivars, such as Bannockburn 157, Phoobsering 312 and Ambari Vegetative 2, which have been specifically adapted for Darjeeling. The British established numerous tea plantations, with the majority of workers being Gorkhas and Lepchas from Nepal and Sikkim. Issues related to the transferred subjects to the GTA. In 1860 the British occupied Rinchingpong. Prior to its acquisition by the East India Co. in 1835, Darjeeling formed a part of Sikkim and for a brief period of Nepal. The Tea Board of India recognizes 87 tea estates (also called "tea gardens") as producers of Darjeeling tea. The Archaeological Survey of India has come up with a publication on two European cemeteries in Darjeeling that throws light not only on the rich colonial history … Darjeeling, as a place, grabbed him as forcefully as the tea. Their Reports proved the feasibility of establishing a sanatorium in Darjeeling. In Nov. 1864, the treaty of Sinchula was executed in which the Bhutan Duars with the passes leading into the hills and Kalimpong were ceded to the British. Each tea estate operates their own equipment so that processing can begin the same day as plucking. Camellia sinensis was first planted in the Darjeeling region in the mid-1800s. As per Memorandum of Agreement signed between Government of India, Government of West Bengal and Gorkha Janmukti Morcha, Gorkha Territorial Act XX of 2011, having been assented to by the President of India was first published in Kolkata Gazette, Extraordinary of the 12th March 2012. A land-mark year in the History of Darjeeling was 1835, but it would be appropriate to trace its History before that. As Darjeeling teas are low in malt and bitter characteristics and is appreciated for its delicate floral and fruit aromas, milk and sweeteners are typically not added. Since 2004, the term Darjeeling tea has been a registered geographical indication referring to products produced on certain estates within Darjeeling and Kalimpong. [6] Darjeeling could not compete with other tea regions in terms of quantity or price (due to its geographic limitations, remoteness, slower plant growth, inability to mechanize, among other factors) or so it focused on quality. The history of Darjeeling district is linked to that of the East India Company, Sikkim, Nepal and Bhutan.. Provisions of the said Act came into force with effect from the 14th day of March 2012 except the provision of section 74. [4], After the British nationalized the East India Company it only ever leased the lands to tea garden owners on 30 year basis and maintained the practice of only permitting 40% to be used for tea crops with 40% being left natural and 20% for housing and facilities. Labour relations are complex as, in addition to the seasonal influx of temporary workers, the permanent workers can be permanent residents of the estates where, pursuant to the Plantations Labour Act, housing, education, health and other services are provided by the estate, in addition to a base salary. 6,000 was stopped and the British annexed 640 square miles of additional territory from Sikkim. The limits of the existing Darjeeling District have been altered by way of bifurcating it into two separate districts, namely Darjeeling with its headquarters at Darjeeling and Kalimpong with its headquarters at Kalimpong vide Notification No 36-PAR (AR)/0/2R-2/16 dated 07/02/2017 of the Department of Personnel & Administrative Reforms and e-Governance. In 1988, Makaibari became the first tea estate in India to attain organic certification, followed by Tumsong, and the first to gain biodynamic certification, in 1993, followed by Ambootia. Following Indian independence in 1947, practices shifted as British began to sell their stakes in the gardens to Indians and the 1953 Tea Act put the tea industry under the regulatory jurisdiction of the Tea Board of India. The Soviet Union replaced the British as the primary consumers of tea from Darjeeling. The first pluckings in Spring, generally March into May, are referred to as the first flush. So 1866 marks an epoch in the History of Darjeeling, peace was established on all fronts, hence began the march to progress and civilization. No one has cared to examine the source from where this figure has been derived. After independence, the estates were all subsequently sold to businesses in India and regulated under the laws of India. the Siliguri sub-division and in the hills ‘ the whole southern part of Sikkim, between the Great Rangeet and the plains of India, and from Nepal on the west to the Bhutan frontier and the Teesta river on the east’. DEED – ‘The Governor General, having expressed his desire for possession of the Hill of Darjeeling on account of its cool climate, for the purpose of enabling the servants of his Government, suffering from sickness, to avail themselves of its advantages,the Sikkim puttee Raja, out of friendship for the said Governor General, hereby present Darjeeling to the East India Co. that is, all the land South of the Great Rangeet River, East of the Balason, Kahail and Little Rangeet rivers and West of the Rungno and Mahanadi Rivers’. The story of Darjeeling becoming a tea growing region was influenced by China, England and Scotland. [24], First flush Darjeeling tea before and after, "India's tea exporters suffer with decline of 9 million kg in shipments in 2015", "GI tag: TN trails Karnataka with 18 products", "Don't Call It Darjeeling, It's Nepali Tea", "Fairtrade Standard for Tea for Hired Labour and Traders", "Absenteeism in Darjeeling tea sector hits 50%", "Darjeeling's general strike ends too late to save tea harvest", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Darjeeling_tea&oldid=998207379, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Black (green, white and oolong also produced), This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 08:40. The British envoy was openly insulted and returned to Darjeeling. [2] Otherwise, Darjeeling teas are described as possessing a flowery fragrance and fruity (grapes, plums, apricots, peaches, pineapple, guava, or citrus fruits), flowery and woody aroma notes, and a little more astringency than its Chinese counterparts.[14][4][19]. In pursuit of differentiating Darjeeling tea, the Darjeeling Planter's Association had been established, in 1983, to promote the product in other countries and a logo was copyrighted, consisting of the side profile of a woman holding two leaves and a bud and registered it in various countries and then, once it was eligible, internationally in the Madrid system. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. With the intervention of the British, the Gorkhas were prevented from turning the whole of Sikkim into a province of Nepal and Sikkim (including the present District of Darjeeling) was retained as a buffer state between Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet. 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Start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - Kindle. British were the ones who began this hugely profitable industry in the meantime trouble arose with the saplings! With larger and less flavourful and often used for blending generally prepared in the of! Treaty was of great advantage to Darjeeling as well as of tea and tea drinking in India and under... Tract of land along with Grant with special reference to its inhabitants and secured full for.

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