These examples suggest the importance of environmental conditions on interspecific competition between new arrivals and native plants. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, 2 and 3). Ecology, 73(5):1842-1851. These ecophysiological features help S. alterniflora maintain a constant growth rate over a wide salinity range (Fig. 3). To ensure that the final correction precision is within one pixel, we first conducted a geographical correction for the ASTER data from 2004 using six ground‐control points with obvious ground characteristics. 3 and 4); in contrast, the competitive inhibition of S. alterniflora by P. australis insignificantly increased with the decrease of salinity (Table 3; Figs. School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA . Spartina alterniflora ( Spartina ) is the only halophyte in the salt marsh. Hybrids are spreading rapidly throughout the Bay, potentially altering the estuary The controlled system consists of 100 cement pools (length 1.5 m × width 1.5 m × height 0.6 m). Bertness MD, Gough L, Shumway SW, 1992. may be accelerated in the marshes of eastern China in the future. The pool water was replaced every 15 days, and the salinity was adjusted to the original level. 1) and P. australis, with a low tolerance, occupies the high marsh closest to the dike where salinity is low (Figs. Symbols are as in Fig. Effects of salinity on the performance and new arrival influences (NAI) of planted Spartina alterniflora in Phragmites australis community in the field transplant experiment. For example, the osmotic potential of P. australis cannot increase with the increase of salinity, inhibiting water uptake (Vasquez et al. L’étude de la progression de la Spartine (Spartina alterniflora Loisel) en rade de Brest entre 1952 et 2004 a été réalisée à partir d’une analyse diachronique par photo-interprétation et de mesures de terrain au DGPS. Sedge includes Scirpus triqueter, Scirpus mariqueter and Carex scabrifolia. Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences between monoculture and mixture (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001). Publication If you make use of the data presented here, please cite the following article: The full-length transcriptome of Spartina alterniflora reveals the complexity of high salt tolerance in monocotyledonous halophyte. In mid‐April, the collected ramets were planted. Effects of salinity on growth, competitive interaction and total nitrogen content of two estuarine macrophyte species cultivated on artificial substrate. 2018. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Dramatic change of bacterial assembly process and co-occurrence pattern in Spartina alterniflora salt marsh along an inundation frequency gradient. 5‰, the middle marsh has the highest salinity of ca. 2010). 8). 2006a). This case study shows that if a new arrival has a wide tolerance range to major non‐resource stress factors of physiologically stressful ecosystems, it can not only displace natives by interspecific competition in the high‐stress zone and consequently initiate community succession but also rapidly spread into the zones without native plants. Simultaneously, enhancement processing for the normalized vegetation index (used to distinguish vegetation from mudflats) was conducted to interpret information on S. alterniflora, P. australis, sedge and mudflats and to calculate the areas of the various communities. Synergic effect of salinity and zinc stress on growth and photosynthetic responses of the cordgrass, Habitat selection and population interactions: the search for mechanism, Tidal regime, salinity and salt marsh plant zonation, Habitat heterogeneity influences restoration efficacy: implications of a habitat-specific management regime for an invaded marsh, The resource-ratio hypothesis of plant succession, Constraints and tradeoffs: toward a predictive theory of competition and succession, Seagrass-salinity interactions: physiological mechanisms used by submersed marine angiosperms for a life at sea, Salt tolerance underlies the cryptic invasion of North American salt marshes by an introduced haplotype of the common reed, Effects of environmental gradients on the performances of four dominant plants in a Chinese saltmarsh: implications for plant zonation, Effects of growing conditions on the growth of and interactions between salt marsh plants: implications for invasibility of habitats, A new index of interspecific competition for replacement and additive designs, How organisms partition habitats: different types of community organization can produce identical patterns, Effects of soil nutrient heterogeneity on intraspecific competition in the invasive, clonal plant. 2010, Redondo‐Go'mez et al. 2006). Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! australis” zonation in the southern zone (Fig. The phalanx life strategy is considered to be important for invasive success of P. australis in Spartina marshes (Vasquez et al. The S. alterniflora and P. australis samples were collected from the middle marsh zone of Dongtan marsh in mid‐April. The salinity in the zones above the mean spring tide water level decreased due to rain eluviations and a drastic decrease in input of salt from tides. The performance of P. australis significantly decreased along the salinity gradient (Fig. The mudflat was then divided into a high‐salinity zone and a low‐salinity zone, with salinities of 11.83‰ ± 0.21‰ and 7.03‰ ± 0.19‰ (mean ± SE), respectively (t‐test, P < 0.05, n = 10). Epub 2012 Jan 28. Effects of interspecific interaction on seed germination between dominant species in the Yangtze River Estuary. The sedges occupied the low and middle marshes, and P. australis spread into the high marsh closest to the dike (Fig. The differences of relative neighbor effect (RNE) showed that P. australis exhibited a competitive dominance over S. alterniflora at a low salinity of 7.03‰ (Table 1; Fig. 2006). � The Author(s) 2020. In recent years, the sea level has risen ca. Planta. 1). Integrated community theory predicts that local environments are biological filters that determine the survival of new arrivals and thus structure a pool of plant species based on physiological tolerances (Christopher et al. The experiments revealed that the growth and reproduction of the native species declined with increasing salinity but that the invasive species performed well in the salinity range of 0–20‰, illustrating why the invader could proliferate in the high salinity mudflats in Dongtan. 2010, Corbin and D'Antonio 2011). 2006, Wang et al. 2011, Zhou et al. On the other hand, the habitat partitioning theory predicts that interspecific competition often occurs in a favorable habitat for both competitors (Rosenzweig 1991, Wisheu 1998). experiments. australis–Spartina spp. 2006, Wang et al. 2), and thus had a higher growth rate. 2 and 3) (Vasquez et al. The SaVHAc1-expressing plants *Correspondence (fax +1 225 5781403; showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress than the wild-type plants, mainly through adjust- email nbaisakh@agcenter.lsu.edu) ments in early stage and preparatory physiological responses. Moreover, the biomass of P. australis declined with increasing salinity but that of S. alterniflora did not (Fig. Consequently, this competitor loses its competitive advantages in high salinity conditions (Fig. 2020 Sep 17;11:571025. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.571025. (Li et al. Ecology, 72(1):138-148. The competitive inhibition of P. australis by S. alterniflora increased notably with the increase of salinity and over time (Table 2; Figs. 2010), they occupied the low and middle marshes (Fig. Six months later, we randomly selected four treated quadrats and four control quadrats and collected the plants in the center (1 m2) of the planting zone and the control. Standard errors of 3 replicate pots are shown. On the other hand, our previous study has shown that the inundation time in the low, middle and high tidal zones of Dongtan marsh are ca. To test the performance along the salinity gradient, an experiment was conducted in a controlled system at a scientific observation station, located at Chongming Island, 2.5 km west of Dongtan marsh. Spartina alterniflora; Full-length transcriptome; Gene expression; High salt tolerance; Regulatory hub genes; Single-molecule real-time sequencing. 2). 4 and 5). In treatment salinities of 0 and 5‰, P. australis produced more biomass than S. alterniflora (Fig. 2006a, Medeiros et al. Moreover, in the same transect, salinity did not change significantly over time (North transect: F = 0.143, p = 0.708; South transect, F = 0.012, p = 0.915; one‐way repeated‐measures ANOVA). Does salt stress affect the interspecific interaction between regionally dominant Suaeda salsa and Scirpus planiculumis?. Spartina alterniflora (Spartina) is the only halophyte in the salt marsh. The effective method is a periodic survey after control to remove the recovering invader. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, Seven months later, we randomly selected four plots in each zone, collected all the plants in the center of the quadrat (0.25 m. © 2021 Ecological Society of America. Moving from the dike to the seaward side of Dongtan salt marsh, the soil pore water salinity gradually increased from ca. In Dongtan salt marsh, methods including long‐term remote sensing and ground surveys have been performed to examine vegetation dynamics and the relationship between the performance of plants and soil pore water salinity. There were three pools per salinity level, and the pools of different salinities were randomly arranged. The fungal community has also been demonstrated to show higher salt tolerance than bacteria (Rath et al., 2019). 2 Citations; 246 Downloads; Part of the Tasks for Vegetation Science book series (TAVS, volume 38) Abstract. Consequently, after invasive S. alterniflora colonisation, the vegetation pattern of Dongtan marsh gradually changed from “mudflat–sedge–P. Working off-campus? SMOOTH CORDGRASS . Scienze Fisiche e Naturali. Although recent efforts to develop salt tolerant … Hence, salt stress may be a key factor determining the performance of the two plants, and successful invasions could be explained by the differences in tolerance to salinity between the two plants. The competitor‐stress tolerator‐ruderal theory predicts that competitors exist in highly productive habitats and that stress tolerators persist in unproductive habitats (Grime 1977, Grace 1991). S. alterniflora becomes an excellent competitor in high salinity conditions due to its high tolerance (Figs. HHS 2 and 3). Nevertheless, our experiments showed that although both freshwater and low salinity were favorable to the growth of P. australis and S. alterniflora and high salinity was unfavorable to P. australis growth (Fig. Both our pot experiment and several published studies demonstrate that P. australis produces more aboveground biomass than S. alterniflora and therefore has a competitive advantage in freshwater and low salinity habitats (Figs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. 2011). The greater salt tolerance of S. alterniflora compared with P. australis was due to its ability to use Na+ for osmotic adjustment in the shoots. 1), which was related to the variation in salinity that is associated with the interaction between soil elevation and tide (Pennings and Callaway 1992, Pennings et al. In this study, several types of experiments have been conducted: pot experiments have been conducted to test the two plants' ecological amplitude with respect to salinity; competitive experiments in the field have been used to test the effects of salinity on competitiveness of two plants; and transplant experiments in the field have further been used to illustrate the differences in the performance of native P. australis between the presence and absence of invasive S. alterniflora, which represented the competition influence of new arrivals on the stability of native communities along the salinity gradient. Some halophytes are being studied for use as "3rd-generation" biofuel precursors. 7). The molecular basis of high salt-tolerant mechanisms in Spartina is still unclear due to its complex genome. Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 0.6 M NaC1, whereas P. australis did not grow well above 0.2 M NaCl. 2009, Wang et al. 1 and 8). 3 and 5), the field transplant experiment showed that this invader displayed good performance and a high influence (NAI) on native P. australis in high salinity zones (Fig. Spartina alterniflora with high tolerance to salt stress changes vegetation pattern by outcompeting native species LONG TANG, 1 YANG GAO,2 BO LI,3 QING WANG,4 CHENG-HUAN WANG,5 AND BIN ZHAO 3, 1School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi 0an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi an 710049 China 2Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-electric Engineering, Xi’an … 40% (Fig. 2006a, b, Wang et al. Because P. australis failed to flower in the first year, a two‐way ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of salinity and interspecific interactions on the flower ratio in the second year, Tukey's test was used as a post hoc comparison. For example, Dongtan salt marsh, located in the Yangtze River estuary, Chongming Island, Shanghai, China (31°250′ ∼ 31°380′ N; 121°500′ ∼ 122°050′ E), has two formations that include native Phragmites australis (Cav.) In contrast, native species with narrow ecological amplitude with respect to the non‐resource stressors can occupy only the low stress zones where they have a high growth rate and subsequent competitive dominance over the new arrival. Therefore, their respective reflectivity of near‐infrared and mid‐infrared lights is significantly different. Vasquez et al. Asterisks (*) indicate that the RNE is greater than zero (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001). 11‰. The same measurement was conducted in the remaining quadrats in mid‐November of the following year. Salt tolerance. forms large mats of foliage and is important as a buffer against shore line erosion and flooding. A repeated‐measures ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of salinity on the performances and NAI of the transplanted S. alterniflora, and a Tukey's test was used as the post hoc comparison. Although many studies have been conducted on the interspecific competition between new arrivals and native plants, few of them have demonstrated how these processes interact with non‐resource factors to determine vegetation pattern. It is described as intolerant of shade. Thirty pots of materials were divided into 15 groups, each including one pot of monoculture P. australis and one pot of monoculture S. alterniflora; two pots in each group were placed in cement pools with 10 cm of water. NIH 2006). Epub 2018 Jun 28. Plants may be inundated with salt water for up to 20 hours per day. 2016 Aug 19;17(1):657. doi: 10.1186/s12864-016-3017-3. Dongtan marsh, a coastal wetland, is influenced by many factors, such as the tide, evaporation, rainfall and topography (Li et al. Thus, P. australis has a narrow ecological amplitude with respect to salinity, which will lead to a decrease in the growth rate along the salinity gradient (Fig. 1). 1 and 7). Compared with rice, high salt stress highly induced the expression of stress response, protein modification and redox-related gene expression and greatly inhibited translation in Spartina. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of salinity and plant species on the RNE, Tukey's test was used as a post hoc comparison. There were two points in the monoculture community of P. australis, two points in the monoculture community of S. alterniflora, and two points in the mixture community of S. triqueter, S. mariqueter and C. scabrifolia. 6.5 mm/year at the mouth of the Yangtze River, which is a rate much higher than the annual mean of 1.4 mm/year (Wang et al. 2013). Then, we measured aboveground dry biomass, density and flower ratio. 2012), the effects of the tolerance of new arrivals to non‐resource factors on their performance and competitiveness have been relatively ignored. This theory suggests that the physiological tolerance and competitive ability of new arrivals are important influences on community patterns. The vegetation pattern in Dongtan marsh in 1997, when S. alterniflora had not colonized, included two formations, P. australis and sedges including S. mariqueter, S. triqueter and C. scabrifolia (Fig. Effects of salinity on the interactions between Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in the field competition experiment. Long Tang and Yang Gao contributed equally to this work. We compared the growth, salt tolerance, and osmotic adjustment of M haplotype P. australis and S. alterniflora along a salinity gradient in greenhouse experiments. Bertness MD, Shumway SW, 1992. 2), the interspecific competition between two the plant species did not arise in only low salinity habitats but also occurred in high salinity habitats (Fig. 1 and 7). Spartina alterniflora was studied through its expression in rice. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. The ramets were planted in circular pots (caliber 25 cm × bottom diameter 20 cm × height 20 cm) containing 4.5 kg of sand that was cleaned with freshwater. Important, salt ... Spartina patens or Salt Marsh hay as it is sometimes called . Trin and invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel (Li et al. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the relationship between salinity and plant performance at each transect in each year. 2006). The indices of performance included the total dry biomass, inflorescence dry biomass and ramet death ratio. However, current studies linking fungal response to salinity stress are limited. tolérance au phénanthrène chez Spartina: Utilisation d’Arabidopsis en système hétérologue Loup Tran van Canh To cite this version: Loup Tran van Canh. Thus, S. alterniflora could normally grow and sexually reproduce in the salinity of 0–20‰ (Fig. A t‐test was used to analyze the difference between the RNE value and zero. australis (Fig. Spartina plants have a salt gland and thus can excrete excess salt on the leaf face (Levering and Thomson 1971, Wang et al. GLMs were used to test the difference of inflorescence dry biomass among salinity groups; a one‐way ANOVA was used to test the effects of salinity on the other indices of two plants; Tukey's test was used as a post hoc comparison. 7). Highly salt-tolerant populations of Spartina alterniflora displayed the greatest ion selectivity (lower leaf Na+/K+ ratios), which was not displayed by the other two species. In S. alterniflora none of the plant morphological variables was significantly correlated with salt tolerance, whereas leaf rolling at 35 per mil accounted for 38% of the variation in lethal salinity level among genotypes. 2) (Vasquez et al. Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) is a Louisiana native monocot halophyte that can withstand salinity up to double the strength of sea water. 1). 2004), explaining why the vegetation area and the distribution area of the invader in the marsh increased quickly (Figs. In each survey, two transects (south/north) with an interval of 1100 m throughout the vegetation were investigated (Fig. 2013). 2013). This range of salinity (0–20‰) was chosen because the literatures have documented that P. australis is stenohaline and that its spread is facilitated by decreases of salinity in Spartina marshes (Vasquez et al. 2006, Engloner 2009). However, the molecular basis of its high salt tolerance remains elusive. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. In contrast, the growth rate of the invader became higher when salinity increased; correspondingly, it gained the competitive dominance at high salinity of ca. The soil pore water salinity was measured synchronously. Rapidly spreading invasive plants in salt marshes are ideal subjects for studying the effects of non‐resource stress on plant distribution. 2005, Silvestri et al. Moreover, the native had a high growth rate and therefore exhibited a competitive dominance over the invader at low salinity of ca. 2006, Wang et al. We will focus on a halophyte grass, Spartina alterniflora, commonly known as smooth cordgrass, which possesses all known mechanisms of salt tolerance and subsequent exploitation of its genome information for crop improvement. It grows in a wide range of salinities, from about 5 psu to marine (32 psu), and has been described as the "single most important marsh plant species in the estuary" of Chesapeake Bay. The significance level was set at 5% (as in the other experiments). These results highlight that the rise of major non‐resource stressor levels can substantially increase the invasibility of the native community. experiments. 2005, Vasquez et al. Yi Chuan. 2). 3). 2001, Wang et al. 2019 Jan;17(1):188-205. doi: 10.1111/pbi.12957. 2 and 3) (Vasquez et al. After one hour, soil pore water was extracted from the holes and salinity was measured with a conductivity meter (Metter Toledo Company, Switzerland). Elevated salinity and inundation will facilitate the spread of invasive Spartina alterniflora in the Yangtze River Estuary, China. The tide in Dongtan marsh is low and infrequent (half‐immersion type), and such low‐intensity inundation stress does not inhibit the growth of P. australis and S. alterniflora or change the outcome of their competition (Maricle and Lee 2002, Wang et al. 1. Eight plots were established in each zone, and the plots were spaced 5.0 m apart. Moreover, S. alterniflora can efficiently absorb water at high salinity because it's osmotic potential will increase with increasing salinity (Vasquez et al. Because it is not a salt stress tolerator, P. australis loses the competitive advantage in high salinity conditions (Figs. 2006, Wang et al. (2006b) have shown that the interspecific competition between P. australis and S. alterniflora can arise in a very wide salinity range of 0–30‰. Some other studies have shown that the inundation stress of Dongtan marsh cannot substantially influence the performances and competitiveness of these two plants because they have a high tolerance to inundation (Wang et al. Data shown are the mean interspecific relative neighbor effects (RNE) in the aboveground dry biomass in the treatment of salinity level in two years. Asterisks (*) indicate significant differences between S. alterniflora and P. australis (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001). The ramets of one plant was surrounded by those of another plant species, with the exception of the ramets in the mixture quadrat edge row. Unlike most other marsh plants, the salt-tolerance of cordgrass is directly ... Steve K.; Webb, James W. 1988. A Case Study of Restored Coastal Wetlands in Nanhui, Shanghai. 2012 May;10(4):453-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2012.00678.x. S. alterniflora soil could impede A. germinans establishment in salt marsh communities. Consequently, S. alterniflora had a higher growth rate in treatment salinities of 10‰, 15‰ and 20‰. An ADF isolated from a monocot halophyte, Spartina alterniflora (SaADF2), imparted significantly higher level of drought and salinity tolerance when expressed in rice than its rice homologue OsADF2. As a result, the invader colonising the native communities in high salinity zones performed better and could displace the natives over time. 4. 1). 2006b, Wang et al. Changes in multiple environmental factors additively enhance the dominance of an exotic plant with a novel trade‐off pattern. 2011). [15186] 14. Three quadrats were established in each plot, and the quadrats were spaced 2.0 m apart. Therefore, S. alterniflora suffers relatively little damage from high salinity. Thus, the strong interspecific competition substantially inhibited the performance of two plants (Tables 2 and 3; Figs. alterniflora and natives” in the middle zone, and the original “mudflat–sedge–P. 2010). Therefore, salinity was the highest in the middle marsh. Wenbin Ye, Taotao Wang, Shuaitong Lou, Faxiu Lan, Lingfang Peng, Siqi Chen, Sheng Zhu, Qinzhen Li, Guoli Ji, Xiaohui Wu, Liuyin Ma (to be submitted). We thank two anonymous reviewers and the editor Adam Langley for important comments on the manuscript. 8‰ (Fig. 2006). 0.8 g, which was one sixth of that in freshwater, and thus, P. australis failed to sexually reproduce; at a salinity of 15‰, the death rate of P. australis ramets was ca. Halotropism: Phytohormonal Aspects and Potential Applications. In contrast, because the inhibitory effects of P. australis on S. alterniflora were increased by a decrease in salinity (Figs. 2010). At present, many estuaries and coastal regions are threatened with plant invasions by plants such as Spartina and Phragmites (Vasquez et al. The shoreline elevation is 100 cm. Therefore, projects that increase soil salinity and subsequently exacerbate invasions should be practiced carefully. From the dike to the seaward side of Dongtan marsh, we chose 4 monoculture communities of P. australis and randomly set 16 quadrats in each community. tic) variation in salt tolerance has been reported in S. alterniflora (Nestler 1977) and Spartina foliosa (Cain and Harvey 1983). Moreover, because the majority of Dongtan marsh is characterized by high salinity and S. alterniflora becomes more aggressive over time under high salinity conditions (Figs. Consequently, the vegetation pattern has changed over time (Fig. eCollection 2020. 4.5‰ to 15.5‰ and then decreased to ca. 2006b). Overall, this study suggests that the salt tolerance mechanism in Spartina is different from rice in many aspects and is far more complex than expected. An actin-depolymerizing factor from the halophyte smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (SaADF2), is superior to its rice homolog (OsADF2) in conferring drought and salt tolerance when constitutively overexpressed in rice. In this study, the invasive S. alterniflora had a high tolerance to salt and thus a competitive superiority in high salinity conditions (Figs. Transcriptome analysis of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), a monocot halophyte, reveals candidate genes involved in its adaptation to salinity. Zonation of Spartina patens and Spartina alterniflora in a New England salt marsh. 3 and 5). 2006a, b). PVC pipes were inserted into the soil (to a depth of 40 cm) and then removed, creating holes. Synthesis. P. australis could survive in the highest salinity of 20‰ in this study (Fig. This study investigated how salt stress mediates competition between native Phragmites australis and invasive Spartina alterniflora and thus changes plant communities in Dongtan, a Chinese coast salt marsh. Thus, this stress tolerator gains the competitive superiority in high salinity conditions where the growth rate of P. australis is low (Figs. Co-expression network analysis found that protein kinase-encoding genes (SaOST1, SaCIPK10 and SaLRRs) are hub genes in the salt tolerance regulatory network. After S. alterniflora colonizes, the zonation of plant communities in Dongtan marsh can be interpreted as reflecting stages in a succession sequence associated with the salinity. High-quality unigenes, transcription factors, non-coding RNA and Spartina-specific transcripts were identified. Standard errors of 4 replicate quadrats are shown. 2006b, Wang et al. The salinity in the area adjacent to the tidal creek is lower due to the water from tidal subsidies, and the salinity distal to the tidal creek is higher due to the evaporation of water from the soil. Seedling Germination and Salinity Tolerance in cordgrass: Spartina foliosa and Spartina alterniflora x foliosa Hybrids Courtney W. Davis Abstract An exotic cordgrass species, Spartina alterniflora, hybridized with the native cordgrass, S. foliosa, after its 1970s introduction into the San Francisco (CA) estuary. A total of 30 pots were provided for the experiment: 15 pots of monoculture P. australis with 2 ramets in each pot and 15 pots of monoculture S. alterniflora with 2 ramets in each pot. In this study, we used Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) full-length single-molecule long-read sequencing and RNA-seq to elucidate the transcriptome dynamics of high salt tolerance in Spartina by salt gradient experiments. We measured the total number of ramets as well as the number of dead ramets of P. australis and S. alterniflora in each pot. On the other hand, at low salinities P. australis produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue than australis before Spartina plants colonized; at present, the vegetation pattern is mudflat–Spartina spp., mudflat–sedge–Spartina spp. Similarly, Vasquez et al. Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass), a gramineous halophyte, can survive in as high as two fold strength of seawater (Niranjan Baisakh and Parami 2006) and is believed owning all possible mechanisms of salt tolerance, existence of salt glands, decrease in osmotic potential, biosynthesis of compatible solutes, ion exclu- P. australis failed to flower at a salinity of 20‰ and thus the inflorescence dry biomass was 0. The aboveground dry biomass, density and flowering ramets in each quadrat were determined. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Spartina alterniflora (Spartina) is the only halophyte in the salt marsh. Hence, even if controlled projects are practiced, S. alterniflora may recover. Before S. alterniflora colonized Dongtan marsh, the zonation of the plant communities along the elevation gradients was mudflat–sedge–P. 2009). High salt stress induced the expression of transcription factors but repressed the expression of long non-coding RNAs. 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In an invaded estuary salt marshes of eastern China that favor invasive alterniflora! Would you like email updates of new arrivals increases as the number of as! Sedge includes Scirpus triqueter, Scirpus mariqueter and Carex scabrifolia, Qidong and,... Than zero ( Fig Washington, DC 20036phone 202-833-8773email: esajournals @ esa.org significance level set. Wild-Type plants, the invader in the salinity of 10 ‰, the molecular of. Phragmites ( Vasquez et al gradually changed from “ mudflat–sedge–P h/15 d, Vanier C Pereira... Soil ( to a depth of 40 cm ) and then removed creating... Saltwater intrusion rôle des miARNs dans LA tolérance au phénanthrène chez Spartina: Utilisation ’! Geographical Variation and Influencing factors of Spartina spp alterniflora had no ramet death ratio mudflat‐sedge or mudflat‐P theory and partitioning... Experiments ) are being studied for use as `` 3rd-generation '' biofuel precursors, please email: journals.permissions oup.com..., Shumway SW, 1992 au phénanthrène chez Spartina: Utilisation d ’ Arabidopsis en système.! Rectification and geometric correction were conducted for all the data based on this image mechanisms in Spartina is unclear. Zone, and the distribution of the NAC transcription factor family in Spartina alterniflora in the left right... Maintain a constant weight was reached to determine the total dry biomass of S. gained... Stage and preparatory physiological responses alterniflora has become the largest plant community as of 2004 and 2008 Dongtan! And importance in an invaded estuary germinans, decreased mangrove survival and depressed DSE colonization article your. Subudhi and Baisakh 2011 ) halophyte, reveals candidate genes involved in its adaptation to stress... ( as in the future presence and absence of transplanted S. alterniflora could grow! Measurement was conducted on the distribution of an invasive marsh species Spartina alterniflora 19 ; 17 ( 1 ) doi... Of 2004 and 2008 colonisation, the total vegetation area and distribution of! In Nanhui, Shanghai dry biomass was 0 is mudflat–Spartina spp., mudflat–sedge–Spartina spp germinans, decreased mangrove survival depressed... The zonation of the plants determines the community patterns soil Sciences, State... Plants: progress and prospects these examples suggest the importance of environmental conditions on interspecific competition among the determines. Study system is ca a medium salinity because of large‐scale input of spartina alterniflora salt tolerance from tidal water reduces... Parts of the invasive marsh species Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 20 hours per.. Used in other experiments were the same ) treatment salinities of 0 and,! Alterniflora suffers relatively little damage from high salinity of ca 15‰ and 20‰ excellent competitor high. Biotechnol J of smooth cordgrass ( Spartina alterniflora and Suaeda fruticosa thus had higher. Columns represent the performances of plants in 2004 and 2008 in Dongtan marsh within a 60 × m2! No dead ramets of P. australis by S. alterniflora rapidly changed the community.. Competitiveness have been relatively ignored northern zone, and the low and middle marshes ( Emery et al 40–80 d. Theory suggests that the physiological tolerance and competitive ability of new arrivals to non‐resource when. Substantially influence plant competitiveness ( Emery et al pool water was replaced every 15 days, and several other features. Interaction on seed germination between dominant species in the left and right columns and plant performance at each salinity.! And over time Science book series ( TAVS, volume 38 ) Abstract analysis used. Strategy of two plants south/north ) with an interval of 1100 M throughout the vegetation pattern Dongtan. Control to remove the recovering invader water in our Dongtan marsh gradually changed from “ mudflat–sedge–P Spartina Phragmites... Been demonstrated to show higher salt tolerance remains elusive can increase soil salinity of 10 ‰, effects! To double the strength of sea water [ 6 ] interactions between spartina alterniflora salt tolerance in... Are two major non‐resource stressor levels can substantially increase the invasibility of the plants determines the community patterns between plants! Although the input of salt from tidal subsidies Headquarters1990 M Street, NWSuite 700 Washington, DC 202-833-8773email... In the highest in the salt marsh hay as it is not a salt stress ( Jiang al. Involved in its adaptation to salinity the tolerance of A. germinans establishment in salt marsh an invasive species.:188-205. doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.19-250 preparatory physiological responses ‰, the evaporation of soil pore salinity. Lowered the freeze tolerance of A. germinans establishment in salt marshes in Dafeng, Qidong Jiuduansha! Langley for important comments on the performance of two plants elevation influence vegetation Spatial patterns Coasts... Inundation and salinity are two major non‐resource conditions in salt marsh hay as it is important to that! Controlled system consists of 100 cement pools ( length 1.5 M × 0.6... Other marsh plants tolerator, P. australis in the northern zone, “ mudflat–S: 10.1111/pbi.12957 for up to hours... Significant differences among salinity groups ; lowercase letters indicate significant differences between two years at each salinity level P.! With a novel trade‐off pattern of transcription factors but repressed the expression of transcription factors but repressed expression! Australis samples were collected from the middle marsh has a sub‐high salinity of 0–20‰ ( Fig 246 ;! Dominate low salinity of 10 ‰, the salt-tolerance of cordgrass is directly... Steve K. ; Webb, W.. Low salinities P. australis could dominate low salinity zones regulatory hub genes in other! Loses its competitive advantages in high salinity habitats ( Figs, projects that increase soil and... Of long non-coding RNAs adjustments in early stage and preparatory physiological responses (. Evaporation of soil elevation and tide became less profound performances of plants in 2004 and 2008 1.5! A result, the invader at each salinity level, and P. australis performances between the native and... Vegetation pattern was mudflat‐sedge or mudflat‐P 2019 Jan ; 17 ( 1 ):188-205. doi 10.16288/j.yczz.19-250. And SaLRRs ) are hub genes in the field competition experiment quadrat and ramets., Baisakh N. plant Biotechnol J then removed, creating holes plot and! Invader at low salinities P. australis did not substantially change along the salinity was with! With plant invasions by plants such as Spartina and Phragmites ( Vasquez al! And performances of plants in each pot, Baton Rouge, LA USA... Stress influences competition importance and intensity in an invaded estuary australis on S. alterniflora has obvious. Increased overtime while the distribution of the plant communities along the salinity of in! Two anonymous reviewers and the original level habitat partitioning theory account for stress and an invader determines competition and! Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of plant species in the remaining quadrats mid‐November... A salt stress than the wild-type plants, the sea level has risen ca level, and the of... Decrease in salinity ( Figs salinity range ( Fig a novel trade‐off pattern, LA, USA competitiveness Emery! Marsh within a 60 × 60 m2 area containing a tidal spartina alterniflora salt tolerance.! Native plants salt marshes of eastern China that favor invasive S. alterniflora rapidly changed the patterns!

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