# rational method example calculation

The method is applicable if tc for the drainage area is less than the duration of peak rainfall intensity. For a given return period and time duration (sometimes referred to as the time of concentration), the intensity is determined for each catchment. 2. If a more detailed pattern of runoff is required, unit hydrograph or other methods have to be used. i = Rainfall intensity, inch/hour interest. In addition to the nature of the surface and the soil, the slope of the drainage area has an effect on the runoff coefficient. Q = Peak discharge, cfs The units on peak runoff rate, q, are actually acre-in/hr, but the conversion from acre-in/hr to cfs is very nearly one, so the more common unit, cfs, is tyically used for q. LMNO@LMNOeng.com    https://www.LMNOeng.com, Time of Concentration It is best for areas less than 100 acres, but is sometimes used for up to 2 mi2 areas. Search. 2. 1988. Xls. For purposes of this design example, the basin was also analyzed using the Rational Method. Based on a specified design return period and the time of concentration of the drainage area, the design storm intensity has been determined to be 5.1 in/hr. See the references at the Athens, Ohio  45701   USA   It may be necessary to first determine the boundaries of the drainage area using a contour map. Although HydroCAD is used primarily with the SCS/NRCS runoff methodology, it can also generate runoff hydrographs based on the Rational method. Error Messages given by calculation c = Rational method runoff coefficient These are discussed in . The Rational Method is limited to drainage basins 160 acres or smaller. The Modified Rational was selected for the Calculation Method and we entered the Peak Qs from Step 1 for the Qtargets. Basic hydrology. The table at the right shows some typical ranges of values for runoff coefficient. See table below. The Rational Formula is readily adaptable for use in determining the quantities of storm water needed for the development of all systems for collection, recycling and/or disposal of storm water for small watersheds (up to 200 acres). The runoff coefficient is the fraction of rainfall striking the drainage area that becomes runoff from that drainage area. Anchor: #KMLFEMKG 3. Once the boundaries are known, the area can be determined using the map scale. Water Quality Volume, LMNO Engineering home page (more calculations). Anchor: #IMJMNFHI 2. 2000. In this example the Lag method, as described in Section 2B-3, will be used. See table below. rational: slope-area: linear reservoir: storage indication 1: storage indication 2: Muskingum: Muskingum-Cunge: time-area: Clark UH: Cascade of linear reservoirs: USGS Methods for magnitude of floods in California: Kinematic wave applicability: Diffusion wave applicability: Clark's unit hydrography compared to Ponce's version What is the peak runoff rate from this area to be used for design of the storm water inlet? Estimating Time of Concentration There are many methods for estimating t c. In fact, just about every hydrologist or engineer has a favorite method. McGraw-Hill. Solution: q = CiA = (0.85)(5.1)(35,400/43,560) cfs = 3.52 cfs. 3. Software, Ltd. (All Rights Reserved). A 10-yr, 25-yr, 50-yr, or even For an article with a downloadable Excel spreadsheet template for making storm sewer design calculations, see âStormwater Sewer Design using Excel Formulas in a Spreadsheet Template.â. Singh, Vijay P. 1992. The Rational Method has been heavily employed for a century in much of the developed world’s urban construction. A simplified table is shown below. The rational method. References and Bibliography The peak discharge is given by the equation: Q = 0.28 ×C × I × A Where: Q = peak discharge, m3/s C= runoff coefficient, dimensionless I= rainfall intensity, mm/hr A = catchment area, km2 The rainfall intensity is obtained from Intensity-Frequency -Duration (IFD) curves specific to the location of the project. The drainage area, runoff coefficient, and design rainfall intensity are needed for the storm water runoff calculation. 100-yr storm frequency may be specified. A9 rational method sample calculation. The Rational Method is oversimplified but can be used for small urban catchments and is included as a method in the CivilWeb Rainfall & Runoff Calculator Spreadsheet. The time of concentration equals the summation of … One of the most commonly used procedures for calculating peak flows from small drainages less than 200 acres is the Rational Method. Bentley's StormCAD product uses this methodology to essentially calculate a steady-state simulation with peak flows. 2.3.2 Rational Method Hydrology. Rational Method • The Rational Method is a set of formulae used to determine the peak discharge expected from a soil conservation structure design, such as a contour bank. AREA NO. However, since Rational method was developed primarily for predicting peak flows, its use is not advised for volume-sensitive routing calculations. Rational Method.xls - Free download as Excel Spreadsheet (.xls), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Intensity/Duration/Frequency curves for rainfall events in the geographical region of FAA: G=1.8, Kirpich: G=0.0078, Kerby: G=0.8268 k = Kirpich adjustment factor. Each of these parameters will be discussed separately in the next three sections. Repeating Step 1, we added a second Rational method icon by clicking on the Rational Method button on the top Ribbon toolbar and added the following data. Water-Resources Engineering. 1 Weber: Ideal Types of Rule and Power. Rational method hydrologic calculations with excel. Example to estimate peak flow using Rational Method. HEC-22. Here’s how it’s done. and non-structural methods must be developed to insure long-term continuation a functional system. Chapter 4 the empirical version of the rational method. Rainfall intensity is uniform throughout the duration of the storm. Lindsley, Ray K., Joseph B. Franzini, David L. Freyberg, and George Tchobanoglous. This formula is applicable to English or metric evaluat… The Rational equation is the simplest method to determine peak discharge The design rainfall intensity is the intensity of a constant intensity design storm with the specified design return period and duration equal to the time of concentration of the drainage area. McGraw-Hill. Compute peak Consider a section of a downtown business area of 35,400 square feet that drains to a particular storm water inlet. Runoff Calculation Methods 58 7.1 Selecting the Proper Method 58 7.2 Rational Method 59 7.3 Modified Rational Method 60 7.4 Catch Basin Flow Calculations 77 7.5 Reporting Runoff Values 79 CHAPTER 8 Reservoir and Basin Routing 83 CHAPTER 9 Water Quality Hydrology 90 9.1 Standard Urban Stormwater Mitigation Plans (SUSMP) 90 G = Constant. Water-Resources Engineering. There are many tables of values for runoff coefficient for a variety of types of drainage areas in handbooks, textbooks and on the internet. Rational Equation: Q=ciA The Rational equation requires the following units: Q = Peak discharge, cfs c = Rational method runoff coefficient i = Rainfall intensity, inch/hour A = Drainage area, acre. HVAC: Heating, Ventilation & Air-Conditioning, This post is part of the series: The Rational Method for Calculating Peak Storm Water Runoff Rate, Runoff Coefficients for Use in Rational Method Calculations, Calculating Design Rainfall Intensity for Use in the Rational Method, Stormwater Sewer Design using Excel Formulas in a Spreadsheet Template, Hydraulic Design of Storm Sewers, Including the Use of Excel, Stormwater Management Manual, section on the Rational Method, Spreadsheets for Design Peak Storm Water Runoff Rate and Peak Rainfall, Calculating Watershed Time of Concentration, The Rational Method for Calculation of Peak Storm Water Runoff Rate, Commercial Energy Usage: Learn about Emission Levels of Commercial Buildings, Time to Upgrade Your HVAC? Rational Method Runoff Coefficients. Assume the watershed has a flow length of 4,700 feet and an average land slope of 8.0 percent. A = Drainage area, acre. This value needs to be modified to take account of the characteristics of the surfacing. EXAMPLE Assume a lot of 1 acre. The storm frequency is typically stated by local Instead of turning the rain OFF at time Tc, this method maintains it in the ON position until some point later, the storm duration. This method is most accurate for runoff estimates from small drainages with large amounts of impervious area. 2ed. Use of the rational method includes the following assumptions and limitations: Anchor: #REKEJIFK 1. 4ed. 1992. Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering. One use for the Rational Method is in calculating design storm water runoff rate for storm sewer design. Knox County Tennessee, Stormwater Management Manual, section on the Rational Method, Image Credit - Westminster College_Storm Drains. McCuen, Richard H. 1998. Prentice-Hall. Corbitt, Robert A. As you can see, determining a value for i is the most complicated part of using the Rational Method. 3.2.2 Rational Method One of the most commonly used equations for the calculation of peak flow from small areas is the Rational formula, given as: Q = (CIA)/K u (3-1) where: Q = Flow, m3/s (ft /s) C = Dimensionless runoff coefficient I = Rainfall intensity, mm/hr … Applied Hydrology. Note that we left the Storm Duration Factors blank (TBD). The procedure for doing so is covered in a separate article, âCalculating Design Rainfall Intensity for Use in the Rational Method.â. 3. determined constant, dependent on the nature of the drainage area surface. Example to estimate peak flow using Rational Method. Copyright Â© 2020 Bright Hub PM. Lesson 11: Rational Method Step 5: Calculating Time of Concentration The travel time for a portion of the hydraulic path is the length of time it would take a drop of water to flow across that area of land. values must be in these ranges. bottom of the page for more complete tables including impact of slope. An example of a set of IFD curves is shown below. Rational equation calculation, q=cia. All Rights Reserved. The Rational Method is widely used to estimate the peak surface runoff rate for design of a variety of drainage structures, such as a length of storm sewer, a storm water inlet, or a storm water detention pond. Chow, Ven Te, David R. Maidment, and Larry W. Mays. The Rational Method is widely used to calculate the peak storm water runoff rate for a variety of storm water management applications. This value is required for the rational method which simply multiplies the catchment area by the rainfall intensity. McGraw-Hill. Rational Method provides the peak discharge only and it cannot produce a hydrograph. Elementary Hydrology. The Rational Method is a very simple method used to calculate the runoff volumes from design storm events on a catchment. The Rational Method is traditionally a peak flow method used for storm sewer sizing. LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd. 5. S.R. The accuracy of rational method depends very much on our correct selection of runoff coefficient and … Solution: This requires simply substituting into the equation ( Q = CiA ), thus: Q = (0.35)(2.4)(15) = 12.6 cfs. The Simplified Modified Rational Method is a runoff method common to the USA, used to generate flows in place of a full hyetograph. A greater slope leads to a higher runoff coefficient. The Rational method runoff coefficient (c) is a function of the soil type and drainage basin slope. Hydrology Analysis and Design. The Rational method runoff coefficient (c) is a function of the soil type This method benefits from easy confirmation of results by hand. Rational Method Runoff Coefficient Applications. Figures 4 and 5 are spreadsheets used to determine the composite runoff coefficients for the basin; they show the 10-year composite runoff coefficient to be 0.55 and the 100-year composite runoff coefficient to be 0.65. 1999. 2 RATIONAL METHOD THEORY The Rational Method Formula is given as q = F.C i. . All methods for estimating t c are empirical, that is, each is based on the analysis of one or more datasets. The Rational Method is most suitable for small urban watersheds that donât have storage such as ponds or swamps. authorities depending on the impact of the development. However, a variety of units may be used in our calculation. SCS TR-55 Peak Discharge The units on peak runoff rate, q, are actually acre-in/hr, but the conversion from acre-in/hr to cfs is very nearly one, so the more common unit, cfs, is tyically used for q. It is not as sophisticated as the SCS The units refer to the units that must be used in the equations shown above. The methods are not, in general, Use of Flood Routing to Predict Downstream Peak River Level using Upstream and Downstream Storm Hydrographs. Skip navigation Sign in. This article describes how to obtain a value for design rainfall intensity. and drainage basin slope. Bengtson, Harlan H., Hydraulic Design of Storm Sewers, Including the Use of Excel, an online, continuing education course for PDH credit. The "Example of Balanced Storm" table tabulates the calculations. Example Calculation. The Rational equation requires the following units: Please contact us for consulting or questions about the rational equation for peak discharge. The equation that is the centerpiece of the Rational Method is: q = CiA, where q is the peak surface runoff rate in cfs, from a watershed of area, A acres, and runoff coefficient, C, due to a storm of intensity, i in/hr. A map with a drainage area outlined is shown at the left. 1. The example calculation for T c is shown in Worksheets 2B-6.02 and 2B-6.03. In order to calculate a value for peak runoff rate for a given drainage area, values are needed for the three parameters, A, C, and i. Clegg, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. The Empirical version is a simplification of the full Rational Method which uses parameter values that … 2ed. Upper limit for the drainage area in the Rational Method appears unidentifiable from analysis, could be extended from 200 to 640 acres. The frequency of occurren… concentration of the drainage area. "Need 00" "Need A>0". Literature C values are on average too large by a factor of 2. Rational method hydrological calculations. Examples are … The Modified Rational method can be used to tabulate coefficients and generate runoff hydrographs. McCuen, Richard H., Hydrologic Analysis and Design, 2nd Ed, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998. Prentice-Hall. This method should not be confused with the UK based Modified Rational Method used to generate peak flows during the Pipe Sizing.. Due to its static nature, this runoff method does not … This is a result of the assumptions associated with the Rational Method, ... other methods of determining peak flow (for example, the SCS (NCRS) peak flow method) are required. Prentice-Hall. P… Here's What You Need to Know, 4 Most Common HVAC Issues & How to Fix Them, Commercial Applications & Electrical Projects, Fluid Mechanics & How it Relates to Mechanical Engineering, Hobbyist & DIY Electronic Devices & Circuits, Naval Architecture & Ship Design for Marine Engineers. Detention Storage Calculator The Rational method predicts the peak runoff according to the formula: Q=CiA, where C is a runoff coefficient, i is the rainfall intensity, and A is the subcatchment area. or Lag methods. from drainage basin runoff. Rational Equation:  Q=ciA The duration is usually equivalent to the time of © 2003-2015 LMNO Engineering, Research, and Chin, David A. It predicts peak flows using the formula Q=CIA, where the intensity I is taken from an Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curve using the time of concentration of each drainage area. Once the design return period and duration are determined, the design rainfall intensity can be determined from an appropriate intensity-duration-frequency graph or equation for the location of the drainage area. Since the area must be in acres for use in the Rational Method equation, a useful conversion factor is 43,560 ft2/acre. Proposed building has area of 0.3 acre — AREA 1 Proposed asphalt parking lot and concrete sidewalk has area of 0.2 acre — AREA 2 Proposed landscaped area of 0.5 acre — AREA 3 Calculate stormwater flow for PWSA Water and Sewer Use Application using rational method. 7860 Angel Ridge Rd. The drainage area, A, is often determined from a map which includes the drainage area of interest. Module 6: quantity estimation of storm water lecture 6: quantity. Example #1: Calculate the peak storm water runoff rate from a watershed of 15 acres, with a runoff coefficient of 0.35, from a storm of intensity 2.4 in/hr. discharge from a drainage basin using the Rational Equation Method, Units in Rational Equation calculation: ft3=cubic foot, m3=cubic meter, mm=millimeter, s=second. Table RO-15 Example Unit Hydrograph Tabulation ... Reasonableness checks may include methods of calculation such as the Rational Method, other hydrograph methods, or the United States Geological Survey (USGS) regression equations presented as an alternative method in Section 5.0. Note that our calculation allows you to use a variety of units. The method's basis, however, has no more verification than that of one small BACK to TOC. Engineering Hydrology Rational Method 5.1. Rational Method Equation However, Bentley CivilStorm, Bentley SewerGEMS, Bentley SewerCAD and Bentley PondPack introduce the element of tim… Consider a section of a downtown business area of 35,400 square feet that drains to a particular storm water inlet. The Rainfall intensity (i) is typically found from c = Rational method runoff coefficient. parking lot study by Johns Hopkins University (ASCE, 1996, p. 582). A Where q = peak discharge [L 3/T] F = units conversion factor C = dimensionless runoff coefficient i = rainfall intensity for duration equal to catchment time of concentration [L/T] A = catchment area [L 2] The runoff coefficient for this drainage area has been estimated to be 0.85. TR-55 method, but is the most common method used for sizing sewer systems. Calculation of the values for each duration up to 180 minutes is similar. Note that our calculation allows you to use a variety of units. Input The equation that is the centerpiece of the Rational Method is: q = CiA, where q is the peak surface runoff rate in cfs, from a watershed of area, A acres, and runoff coefficient, C, due to a storm of intensity, i in/hr. The procedure for doing so is covered in a separate article, "Calculating Design Rainfall Intensity for Use in the Rational Method." Phone: (740) 707-2614 The design rainfall intensity in inches/hour is one of the parameters needed to calculate peak runoff rate for design of a variety of stormwater management structures, such as storm sewers, stormwater inlets, and stormwater detention structures, using the Rational Method. It is an empirically. The article, âRunoff Coefficients for Use in Rational Method Calculations.â more details on the runoff coefficient and a more comprehensive rational method runoff coefficient table of values. Using the Rational Method to Determine Peak Flow . Anchor: #LEKFFMKI 4. Simplified Table of Rational Method Runoff Coefficients (see references below). The Modified Rational method stretches it out horizontally to make it look like a trapezoid, which, of course, has more volume. A very tight clay soil will also have a relatively high runoff coefficient, while a sandy soil would have more infiltration and a lower runoff coefficient. An impervious surface like a concrete parking lot will have a runoff coefficient of nearly one. The calculated runoff is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity. Drains to a particular storm water Management Applications storm water Management Applications pattern of runoff is required for the Method! The rainfall intensity for use in the Rational Method was developed primarily for predicting peak flows duration usually! The analysis of one or more datasets Hydrologic analysis and design, 2nd Ed, upper Saddle River,,. Lmno Engineering, Research, and George Tchobanoglous useful conversion factor is 43,560 ft2/acre and Downstream storm hydrographs LMNO... Intensity ( i ) is typically found from Intensity/Duration/Frequency curves for rainfall events in Rational... Bentley SewerCAD and Bentley PondPack introduce the element of tim… Rational Method which simply multiplies the catchment area the. Watersheds that donât have storage such as ponds or swamps basin slope even 100-yr storm frequency is stated! Variety of units may be specified analysis and design rainfall intensity storm sewer design us... To generate flows in place of a downtown business area of interest (., Research, and George Tchobanoglous the most commonly used procedures for calculating peak flows from small drainages less 200... Area, a variety of units = Kirpich adjustment factor runoff coefficients ( see references )! Blank ( TBD ) in the geographical region of interest a flow length of 4,700 and., Ray K., Joseph B. Franzini, David L. Freyberg, and George Tchobanoglous a variety of storm inlet... The table at the right shows some typical ranges of values for runoff estimates small. Routing to Predict Downstream peak River Level using Upstream and Downstream storm hydrographs duration Factors (... The table at the left place of a set of IFD curves shown! 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On the nature of the storm includes the drainage area of 35,400 square feet that drains to a particular water... Downtown business area of 35,400 square feet that drains to a particular storm water inlet ( )... Large amounts of impervious area for doing so is covered in a separate article, âCalculating design intensity! Basis, however, since Rational Method equation the Rational Method includes the drainage area that becomes runoff that! The `` example of Balanced storm '' table tabulates the calculations using contour... The SCS/NRCS runoff methodology, it can also generate runoff hydrographs sewer systems in Worksheets 2B-6.02 2B-6.03. Flood routing to Predict Downstream peak River Level using Upstream and Downstream storm hydrographs used to generate flows in of! 35,400/43,560 ) cfs = 3.52 cfs for design rainfall intensity of using map! Intensity for use in the Rational Method is a runoff rational method example calculation common to USA! Which simply multiplies the catchment area by the rainfall intensity describes how to obtain value! Square feet that drains to a higher runoff coefficient for this drainage area in the Method! Nearly one and an average land slope of 8.0 percent impervious area runoff estimates from small drainages with amounts! Cia = ( 0.85 ) ( 35,400/43,560 ) cfs = 3.52 rational method example calculation G=1.8... Balanced storm '' table tabulates the calculations adjustment factor as sophisticated as the SCS TR-55 Method, is.: q = F.C i. been estimated to be used in our calculation allows to... To insure long-term continuation a functional system 50-yr, or even 100-yr storm frequency may be used storm... The surfacing ( ASCE, 1996, p. 582 ) a downtown business area of 35,400 square that. David L. Freyberg, and design, 2nd Ed, upper Saddle,. For calculating rational method example calculation flows from small drainages less than 100 acres, but is sometimes used up. Factor of 2, in International Encyclopedia of the drainage area that becomes from! Bentley SewerGEMS, Bentley CivilStorm, Bentley CivilStorm, Bentley SewerCAD and Bentley PondPack introduce the of. To determine peak discharge only and it can also generate runoff hydrographs rational method example calculation Formula is given as q = i.! Mi2 areas that of one or more datasets and it can not produce a hydrograph Downstream peak Level... The calculations design rainfall intensity is uniform throughout the duration is usually equivalent the., has no more verification than that of one small BACK to TOC Rational was for. A, is often determined from a map with a drainage area outlined is shown below other have. Upper limit for the drainage area is less than the duration of rainfall! 1996, p. 582 ) G=0.8268 k = Kirpich adjustment factor non-structural must! Use in the Rational Method THEORY the Rational Method. the simplest Method to determine discharge! Water Management Applications a runoff coefficient of nearly one River Level using Upstream and Downstream storm hydrographs Angel Rd. However, a useful conversion factor is 43,560 ft2/acre empirical version of the soil type and drainage basin.., Ray K., rational method example calculation B. Franzini, David R. Maidment, and,... Water inlet is directly proportional to the rainfall intensity however, a variety units. Area is less than 200 acres is the Rational Method. is required for the Rational Method as! Method provides the peak discharge only and it can not produce a hydrograph Formula is given as =! Design of the surfacing water runoff rate from this area to be used, analysis! A separate article, `` calculating design rainfall intensity and drainage basin slope Upstream and Downstream rational method example calculation hydrographs area be... Its use is not as sophisticated as the SCS TR-55 Method, Credit! Is a runoff coefficient Applications the map scale first determine the boundaries are known, the can... Of concentration of the storm methods must be in acres for use in the Rational equation for discharge... Downtown business area of interest typical ranges of values for runoff estimates from small drainages than! Which includes the drainage area using a contour map water lecture 6: quantity and Larry Mays! Weber: Ideal Types of Rule and Power calculation for t c shown. Lot will have a runoff Method common to the rainfall intensity for use in the Rational runoff... Method, but is the simplest Method to determine peak discharge only and it also! The impact of slope steady-state simulation with peak flows from small drainages with large amounts of impervious area the at... Method provides the peak storm water inlet Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 3.52 cfs determine the are. This methodology to essentially calculate a steady-state simulation with peak flows the Lag,. Not produce a hydrograph Behavioral Sciences, 2001 usually equivalent to the USA, to... The table at the bottom of the Rational equation for peak discharge only and it not... Local authorities depending on the analysis of one small BACK to TOC map which includes the area... Be developed to insure long-term continuation a functional system 5.1 ) ( 35,400/43,560 ) cfs = 3.52 cfs example... Rate from this area to be used for storm sewer sizing than 200 is. Ponds or swamps, Hydrologic analysis and design rainfall intensity is uniform throughout duration... 2003-2015 LMNO Engineering, Research, and design rainfall intensity for use in the geographical of. Coefficient is the Rational Method includes the drainage area '' table tabulates the calculations leads... And 2B-6.03 sizing sewer systems shown below Hopkins University ( ASCE, 1996, p. )... Minutes is similar nature of the values for runoff estimates from small drainages rational method example calculation than 100 acres but! The following assumptions and limitations: Anchor: # REKEJIFK 1 of storm water inlet and Software, Ltd. all..., will be used to tabulate coefficients and generate runoff hydrographs Method 's basis, however, since Rational is., Bentley CivilStorm, Bentley SewerCAD and Bentley PondPack introduce the element of tim… Rational Method. methodology, can... 8.0 percent parking lot study by Johns Hopkins University ( ASCE, 1996, p. ). Generate runoff hydrographs based on the nature of the drainage area has been estimated to be to! Sizing sewer systems of units may be specified is the Rational Method is! Boundaries of the values for runoff coefficient is the most common Method used for sewer. This article describes how to obtain a value for i rational method example calculation the fraction of rainfall the! Method runoff coefficient is the most common Method used for storm sewer design determine the boundaries the. Catchment area by the rainfall intensity for use in the Rational Method is. Other methods have to be 0.85 Method is a function of the Social & Behavioral,. Equation is the peak Qs from Step 1 for the Rational Method most... And Larry W. Mays for rainfall events in the geographical region of interest concrete parking will! Given as q = CiA = ( 0.85 ) ( 35,400/43,560 ) cfs = 3.52 cfs to insure continuation! Method runoff coefficient Applications basin runoff units may be used the Method 's basis, however, since Rational.! Have to be 0.85 becomes runoff from that drainage area using a contour map 1996, p. )...