It does so principally by seeking endorsement from a would-be financier. However, assuming that an individual just has to be famous to represent a successful spokesperson would be incorrect (Solomon, 2008). The second highest paid celebrity on our list, he received a jaw dropping 100 million dollars in return for attaching his name-and face-to their products. As a result, it is becoming familiar for companies to ‘share stars’ (Elliott, 1991; Sloan and Freeman, 1988). A balance theory explanation of endorsement suggests three elements linked in a triangular relationship: the endorser (celebrity), the product/brand and the consumer. Reference this. Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings. The primary goal, in this case, is to reach a greater audience, represented by the celebrity’s fan base. Neil Patrick Harris begins his fourth year of pitching for the Dutch brewery in 2017, building on his personal brand of humor to coincide with the lighter side of the brewery’s brand. These include British and foreign TV, print, poster campaigns, websites and corporate videos. A lot of lessons can be taken from analyzing celebrity endorsements on social media. It addresses the benefits and risks of using celebrity endorsements, preliminary considerations when entering into a celebrity endorsement agreement, key clauses in a typical celebrity endorsement agreement, and key issues to consider when drafting or reviewing those agreements. Reference groups vary in how consumers perceive their own characteristics and lifestyles, and whether such celebrity advertising may generate these attitudes and behaviour. Some parties which only contest elections in certain parts of the United Kingdom endorsed political parties in areas they do not contest. Likability is affection for the source as a result of physical appearance, behaviour or other personality traits (Belch and Belch, 2009 pp 182). According to Friedman and Friedman (1979 cited in Atkin and Block, 1983), a celebrity spokesperson is more effective for products high in psychological or social risks relative to a ‘normal’ spokesperson; such elements include good taste, self image and opinion of others. Familiarity: In the celebrity endorsement context, familiarity has been defined as ‘knowledge of the source through exposure’ (Erdogan, 1999 pp 299). The meaning tr. Source attractiveness leads to persuasion through a process of ‘identification’ whereby the receiver is motivated to seek some type of relationship with the source (celebrity) and thus adopts similar beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or behaviour. Dissertation This investigation will emphasis on the use of sporting celebrities in advertisements as they have achieved their celebrity status through sporting success as opposed to it being either ascribed or attributed ‘Achieved celebrity derives from the perceived accomplishments of the individual in open competition… In the public realm they are recognised as individuals who possess rare talents or skills.’ (Rojek, 2001). Useful Talent has been at the heart of celebrity led advertising in Europe and the USA for over 25 years and is uniquely qualified to place accurate priced endorsement proposals directly into the hands of the appropriate decision makers. Additionally Atkin and Black (1983) emphasize that celebrity endorsers may be influential as ‘celebrity endorsers are considered to be highly dynamic, with attractive and engaging personal qualities. When an organisation considers choosing a celebrity for their advertising campaign, they need to analyse the previous knowledge a celebrity has or how they will utilise their knowledge in the exposure stage. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Celebrity endorsements within retail can also help engage consumers nowadays as they tend to remember and acknowledge a retailer more if a celebrity is the face of the brand. Examples of celebrity endorsements are: Tiger Woods for Tag Heuer; Edu Manano for Lucky Me; Britney Spears for Skechers; Alicia Silverstone for Kamiseta; Bata Reyes for San Minguel Beer. Brad Pitt even made history as the first male spokesperson for classic fragrance Chanel No. Certainly this can be an expensive marketing method: Jamie Oliver’s celebrity endorsement ad campaign for Sainsbury’s cost £41 million, but the return-on-investment can be startling. they are cheap, easy to control and can be a … Kambitsis et al (2002 pp 160) shares this perspective and found that athletes’ personality was an important factor when influencing ‘specific target groups, to which such personalities are easily recognisable and much admired.’ McCracken suggests a meaning transfer model, which is made up of three subsequent stages. These attributes will be discussed in section 1.8. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Celebrity Endorsement Marketing Dissertation. By Seb Joseph 1 Oct 2012 12:00 am. This Practice Note discusses celebrity endorsement agreements. Although traditional advertising knowledge suggests the meaning of an elite product contract with the celebrity, uniqueness comes with a high price label. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! A deeper insight in the complex process of celebrity endorsement is provided by the ‘meaning transfer model’, this will be discussed in section 1.12. . NEVER BEFORE has demand for celebrity involvement in all forms of advertising been higher, or more cost effective. Multiple celebrity endorsement. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. According to Campaign Magazine over 22% of all TV advertising utilise a celebrity endorsement in vision and over 30% include a celebrity voice over. The Tiger Woods scandal has already been noted within this research paper and is one of the more widespread examples of celebrity endorsement ‘gone wrong'. Endorsement is the use of a sport celebrity by a company to sell or enhance the image of the company, product, or brand. Branding strategies used by organisations should be aware of factors that may effect an individual’s motivation with regards to needs satisfaction when obtaining products/brands through the initial stages of the consumer decision making process. The ‘match-up theory’ suggests that the effectiveness depends on the appropriate match between an endorser and the product/brand (Till and Busler, 1998). No plagiarism, guaranteed! Balance theory (Heider, 1958 cited in Dean, 2002) considers relations among objects the consumer may perceive belong together, linked by association, proximity, similarity, ownership, or common fate. 13 examples: A year later, the campaign was ditched in favor of a celebrity endorsement… Before any brand signs on a celebrity, they should consider three main aspects. You can find out more about which cookies we are using or switch them off in settings. Celebrity endorsement has increased dramatically the past few years and primary research has allowed the current author to prove this. Audiences may also trust the advice provided by some famous persons, and in certain cases celebrities may even be perceived as competent to discuss the product. The use of a celebrity endorser can be seen as the source of a message the company wishes to expose to their target audience. The Image of the Company may be Ruined if the Celebrity’s Image is. Once the receiver internalises an opinion or attitude, it become integrated into their belief system and may be maintained even after the source of the message is forgotten. Celebrity Endorsement Effect on Consumer Behaviour within the UK Fast Fashion Industry. The use of celebrity endorsements is becoming increasing popular amongst organisations to aid in advertising their brand in order to gain a competitive advantage. The reasons why celebrity led product endorsements are so successful are simple: NEVER BEFORE has the consumer been so aware of, or responsive to, celebrity led advertising and endorsements. With the growing importance of social media in a shopper’s purchase journey, companies are evolving and stepping up the endorsement game across different channels. For this investigation, the author has specific aims that include: The review of literature will examine past theories and research on celebrity endorsements, outlining relevant areas involving; consumer buyer behaviour, celebrity versus non-celebrity advertising, key attributes organisation require in an endorser and benefits and limitations of using this communication technique. O’Guinn et al (2008 pp 349) describes that ‘a celebrity testimonial will increase the adverts ability to attract attention and produce a desire in receivers attempting to emulate or imitate the celebrities in which they admire’. It is a marketing communication tool that is used widely across western culture thus being relevant and significant in today’s market. Drew Barrymore For Crocs. The initial reason this topic was chosen to research was that the author has a particular interest in this aspect of marketing, and how celebrities are becoming an increasingly attractive tool for organisation to promote their brand and how this technique motivates consumers to purchase. The celebrity’s brand needs to fit and add to … Source attractiveness is related to physical attributes such as: Similarity, Likability and Familiarity (Belch and Belch, 2009). It is the aim of this study to outline whether celebrities have an effect on consumer purchasing behaviour. The marketer must select a celebrity that has a good ‘fit’ with the brand, that is intended to be exposed (Pringle, 2004). Therefore it is important that marketers carry out consumer research and analysis to be aware of important trends and evaluate these aspects. As a young tennis star, Capriati had a number of endorsement deals, including Oil of Olay, Diadora and racket maker Prince. Celebrity Endorsement Effect on Consumer Behaviour within the UK Fast Fashion Industry. The ad created a public relations nightmare for Pepsi and for Jenner, who bore the brunt of the blame for her participation. To reveal whether celebrity endorsements effect consumers purchasing decisions and to what extent. Shimp (1997) claimed in his study that nearly 25% of US-based commercials used celebrities. Celebrity’s endorsement is a process of persuasive and informing consumers about the new and existing products available in the market. Thalia vs. Pharmaceutical Company Genomma Lab International. Millions of dollars are spent per annum on celebrity endorsement contracts on the basis that source effects play an important part in convincing communications. In addition, Kamins (1990) argues that ‘reference groups provide points of comparison through which the consumer may evaluate attitudes and behaviour’. From the literature it has become evident that a spokesperson interacts with the type of brand being promoted. This in turn, to apply the following attributes in the methodology part of the study. Barack Obama, for example, went into his 2008 campaign with “a tremendous amount of celebrity support”, Jackson recalls, “and there’s evidence from the … The third stage of the model illustrates the significance of the consumer’s role in the process of celebrity endorsed brands. And these assessments do not show evidence that celebrity endorsement specifically contributed to achieving campaign results. Numerous investigation in social cognition have discovered that usually congruent information is remembered better that information incongruent or irrelevant with existing schemas (Cantor and Mischel, 1979; Cohen, 1981; Taylor and Cracker, 1981). Celebrity endorsements that backfired. Any fees quoted are approximate, subject to specific quotation and subject to contract. 2.0 When and why celebrity’s endorsement an effective advertising strategy? Although the number of advertising featuring celebrities has increased and it seems inevitable that it will in the future, there is still a question of whether celebrity endorsement has an impact on consumers’ behaviour. Customers will be influenced by various factors such as reference groups, social effects as well as local cultural factors, these aspects impact on the way in which a consumer will make decisions. Celebrity endorsement have … For an advertisement campaign to have the desired effectiveness on consumer’s behaviour, the selected celebrity must have certain attributes to attract and retain the consumer’s attention. VAT Registration No: 842417633. However the power source characteristic is very difficult to apply in a non-personal influence situation such as advertising. For example, Heston Blumenthal’s eyewear range for Vision Express, although a costly campaign, helped to drive a 6% increase in sales in 2013 and an 11% rise in operating profits. Although traditional advertising knowledge suggests the meaning of an elite product contract with the celebrity, uniqueness comes with a high price label. This occurs because consumers’ desire harmony in their beliefs, and it would be unstable (unbalanced) to have a positively valued element linked to a negatively valued element. Sources: SodaStream, California Milk … Source Attributes and Receiver Processing Model (Belch and Belch, 2009). However the company must consider a number of factors when deciding to use a celebrity spokesperson such as over-shadowing the product/brand, being overexposed and the target audiences receptivity and risks to the advertiser (Belch and Belch, 2009). Price is frequently seen as a main indicator of involvement level as individuals spend increasingly more time searching and comparing information and prices. Ohanian (1990, cited in Belch and Belch, 2009) found that the perceived expertise of celebrity endorsers was more important in explaining purchase intentions than their attractiveness or trustworthiness. Most celebrities that are hired by an organisation to endorse their product or brand are popular people, television stars, movie actors or famous athletes (Shimp, 2007). This is based on how honest the celebrity is about what they say concerning the brand (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2009). Product Endorsement Specialists Since 1986. 50 Cent, was picked to shill for Vitaminwater when the company saw him holding a bottle in a photo (which, ironically, was an ad for another company). The use of celebrity endorsements are a means of creating awareness of the brand advertised. It's unclear how celebrity endorsements, especially the most unusual ones, come to be. Michael Jordan & Nike – a partnership resulted in the development of a new product line. For example, Heston Blumenthal’s eyewear range for Vision Express, although a costly campaign, helped to drive a 6% increase in sales in 2013 and an 11% rise in operating profits. Atkin and Block (1983) claim two fundamental reasons why celebrities are increasingly utilised within advertising. Not surprising then that statistics prove that advertising including a celebrity out-perform 2-1 those without. In particular literature is explored which examines the influence of sports celebrities in advertising products/brands. 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